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What tradition has long known, science must labor through

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What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 12 Sep 2018, 04:26
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17% (00:44) correct 82% (01:08) wrong based on 63 sessions
What tradition has long known, science must labor through its usual rigorous protocols to arrive at the very same assessment. Concerning learning in infants, recent findings (i)______ this trend : the timeworn yarn that babies are (ii)______ - and oftentimes disregarding - stimuli from their surroundings has been turned on its head; although (iii)______ exhibiting a mastery of their respective worlds, infants are constantly conducting experiments- very much like the scientists themselves- testing their limits vis-a-vis an environment at once enchanting and frustrating.





Blank (i)Blank (ii)Blank (iii)
A) buckD) passively receivingG) far from
B) upholdE) subtly parsingH) known for
C) underscoreF) actively misinterpretingI) potentially
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 12 Sep 2018, 07:47
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Great question. However, it is a lack(my personal opinion) of a bit of consistency.

That says the common and ancient wisdom arrive to the same conclusion of scientists after long research.

Actually, the only my concern is the first blank: it is buck this trend but buck is used especially in a financial environment. Here would be better uphold which means confirm or corroborate.

Is back the time the babies received passively stimuli. Now they are more active and engaged. They are far from showing a mastery of the material but surely they are more active.

Ask for further assistance.

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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2018, 09:21
can someone explain me why 'buck' is in the first blank?
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2018, 04:06
Why not underscore?
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2018, 00:06
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In the first blank you must have a word to show the confirmation of the trend.

Underscore is completely out of scope. Has no sense in the context.

Buck for me is wrong. Uphold a trend should be the right one.

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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2018, 00:58
a,d,h
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2018, 16:28
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A, D, G.

Buck means to go against and is often used in the context of "to buck a trend" or "to buck expectations." Its not a mostly economic term (that would be bear and bull), though it can end up relating to market trends nonetheless. As for the idea that uphold works, it doesn't. Thats the exact opposite of what the blank wants due to "the timeworn yarn that babies are (ii)______ - and oftentimes disregarding - stimuli from their surroundings has been turned on its head." To be turned on it's head means to be flipped, gone against or...bucked. The first blank HAS to be bucked because of the structure of this sentence.

For the second blank, F isn't proven anywhere. Nowhere does it say that the babies are ACTIVELY misinterpreting anything. E, subtley parsing, doesn't fit before the modifying "and oftentimes disregarding" as the phrase means they are analysing in a subtle way, which doesn't relate to the idea of them disregarding. D, passively receiving, means they are not ACTIVELY getting information, which means its possible that they would oftentimes be getting the info (passively) and not actually be even registering it. The answer can only be D.

In blank 3, mastery infers a complete understanding of something. Not only would you naturally expect that to NOT be the case for a baby, but if someone has mastery of their enviornment, then they wouldn't need to test their limits and, more importantly maybe, wouldn't likely be frustrated with these enviroments. Therefore you are looking to say that these babies DON'T HAVE MASTERY, but are still doing something as impressive as "conducting experiments." H is therefore the opposite of what we want. I is also therefore wrong. The answer must be G.

Let me reword the whole thing now:

The trend (that science slowly proves what is traditionally already known, slowly) has been bucked when concerning learning in infants. Where once we believed (see: traditionally thought) that babies passively receive information merely by being there, often even disregarding the information, recent scientific findings lead us to believe this is incorrect. Although babies indeed aren't masters of their surroundings, they also aren't merely receiving information passively. In actuality, they are testing themselves constantly against a world that can be both amazing and frustrating, not unlike scientists and their own study of the world around them.
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 04 Oct 2018, 01:51
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Your explanation is great. However, the question itself, in my opinion, has a flaw.

Broken piece by piece the stem


What tradition has long known, science must labor through its usual rigorous protocols to arrive at the very same assessment.


Ok. The meaning of this is the following: the common wisdom or vulgar (stands for not rude but volgo = people from latin) often knows things that scientists discover after several years of rigorous studies.

So far so good


Concerning learning in infants, recent findings (i)______ this trend: the timeworn yarn that babies are (ii)______ - and oftentimes disregarding - stimuli from their surroundings has been turned on its head;

Regarding the learning by babies in their infant stage of life, recent findings: now what? buck or uphold?

According to Oxford Dictionary, which of course is the pinnacle of standard English AND is pacific that the GRE is an exam in which what is tested is primarily Standard English, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/defin ... 9743175120 NO WHERE is reported that buck intend the meaning to confirm something that has derivated or concluded by previous official research by academic (here scientists, of course, belong to the academic world). At most it is used in an informal way or else. However, this is not the case: we care about and use of Standard English.


Moreover, the timeworn yarn that babies are (ii)______ - and oftentimes disregarding - stimuli from their surroundings has been turned on its head.

  • has been turned on its head: this part of the sentence is referring to who or what ?? what is the reference of ITS??

Eventually, the phrase above should look like the following: the timeworn yarn that the babies passively received the stimuli from the surrounding - and that often they dismissed - environment is partially true, if not any.

As such, the real meaning is that we had the misconception that the babies passively interact with what they have around and the conclusion is that this is false. They INTERACT and have stimuli that they process in their head.

although (iii)______ exhibiting a mastery of their respective worlds, infants are constantly conducting experiments- very much like the scientists themselves- testing their limits vis-a-vis an environment at once enchanting and frustrating.


My explanation above is confirmed by the last part of the stem: even though the babies are far away to master completely the surrounding world and its stimuli, they interact a lot with it and tested it kinda as the scientists do. Pushing daily the boundaries of their knowledge.


Bottom line: NON-official material is far away to be even close to the Official material. For this simple reason, it is and will be just how we call it: NON-official material.
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 04 Oct 2018, 15:34
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Buck has the meaning I mentioned (look under VERB in the link you posted. Second definition), but there is a higher level of stringency in ETS material than non-official material specifically to help with creating a test that, in theory, a student from India, Britian, China, the USA, and anywhere else would all be able to answer the same way no matter where they learned how to speak/write the language. Regardless of whether or not you accept the word "buck" to be a GRE quality word though, and whether or not it's the best written prompt ever, the answer to blank one still needs to be something with a meaning similar to buck or "oppose or resist." The research is bucking/opposing/resisting the trend, where "the trend" is the first sentence (that scientific research ultimately just confirms what we already know).

Read it like this: "Recent findings oppose the timeworn yarn that babies passively receive stimuli from their surroundings." Neither uphold (opposite meaning) nor underscore (opposite meaning) would work here, so even just knowing that B and C CANNOT be correct would be enough to put down A as your answer.

"turned on it's head" is an idiom that means "To misinterpret or misrepresent something so that it is completely incorrect or the opposite of what it should be." It is referring to "the timeworn yarn" (that babies passively gain information) where "a yarn" is another idiom that means "a tale or story." It is NOT saying "partially true." It is saying that it's been "turned on it's head" meaning "the opposite of the longtime story...the traditional story...is the actual truth according to some new research."

Read it like this now to link it back to the first sentence (the trend): "The traditional belief is contradicted by the research. This goes against the trend of traditional beliefs being cooberated by research."


Maybe I'm not explaining it well enough, but look at the structure like this maybe:

Sentence 1: This is telling you THE TREND that will be refered to later in the promt.

Sentence 2 first part: Main point of the prompt "The research has shown that the trend from sentence 1 is incorrect, that is, that THE RESEARCH DID NOT PROVE THE VERACITY OF THE LONG HELD BELIEF BUT RATHER WAS THE OPPOSITE." By being the opposite, it effectively bucked/opposed the trend (the trend being that our long held beliefs are usually cooberated by research).

Sentence 2 second part: Explains what the research learned that would oppose the long held belief (that babies passive receive information). What it learned was that the babies ACTIVELY (being the opposite of passive) receive the information. So much so that they even behave like scientists.


I might be jumping around a bit in my response, but I don't see anything wrong with the prompt beyond maybe the use of idioms (albeit rather common ones). It seems you mostly take umbrage with the word buck, but i believe people could answer that part even without knowing what the word meant. Maybe I'm missing some other key to your reason for believing the prompt is poorly written?
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 04 Oct 2018, 18:08
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Great explanation. Kudo :)

However, for "timeworn yarn", which means indeed an effete story, yarn at most is not another idiom but at most a synonym

story=plot=yarn=tale and blah blah blah.

Moreover, has been turned on its head (not it's) means not shown to be true .

Once again, you gave a really in-depth and well-rounded explanation. And this is great. But the first sentence as per reading

What tradition has long known, science must labor through its usual rigorous protocols to arrive at the very same assessment means only and one only reason:

the science has to work really hard to arrive at the same conclusion that philosophers and thinkers - think about for instance to the stoicism: it teaches us things that the modern psychology now is confirming totally and Marco Aurelius was the Emperor of Rome 138 BC - already knew.

So for me, the second sentence should confirm this trend that the babies DO NOT passively receive the stimuli from the outside world and that they conduct experiments (very much like the scientists themselves) ALTHOUGH they do not master totally. This idea is also to be noted at the very end of the entire sentence where the environment explored by the babies themselves is enchanting and frustrating at the same time.

Anyhow, great discussion: we should have more of this on the board.

Thank you so much.
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Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through [#permalink] New post 10 Nov 2018, 14:08
Carcass wrote:
Great explanation. Kudo :)

However, for "timeworn yarn", which means indeed an effete story, yarn at most is not another idiom but at most a synonym

story=plot=yarn=tale and blah blah blah.

Moreover, has been turned on its head (not it's) means not shown to be true .

Once again, you gave a really in-depth and well-rounded explanation. And this is great. But the first sentence as per reading

What tradition has long known, science must labor through its usual rigorous protocols to arrive at the very same assessment means only and one only reason:

the science has to work really hard to arrive at the same conclusion that philosophers and thinkers - think about for instance to the stoicism: it teaches us things that the modern psychology now is confirming totally and Marco Aurelius was the Emperor of Rome 138 BC - already knew.

So for me, the second sentence should confirm this trend that the babies DO NOT passively receive the stimuli from the outside world and that they conduct experiments (very much like the scientists themselves) ALTHOUGH they do not master totally. This idea is also to be noted at the very end of the entire sentence where the environment explored by the babies themselves is enchanting and frustrating at the same time.

Anyhow, great discussion: we should have more of this on the board.

Thanks for the depth of your explanation. I came to the same conclusion that you did. I hope that the GRE experts reason as you do.

Thank you so much.
Re: What tradition has long known, science must labor through   [#permalink] 10 Nov 2018, 14:08
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