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# Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal

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Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal [#permalink]  09 Mar 2019, 02:27
Expert's post
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Question Stats:

58% (04:30) correct 41% (03:49) wrong based on 17 sessions
Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term "pillow lava" suggests a definite shape, in fact geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.
24. Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?

(A) The shape of the connections between the separate, sacklike masses in pillow lava is unknown.
(B) More accurate cross sections of pillow lava would reveal the mode of origin.
(C) Water or ice is necessary for the formation of pillow lava.
(D) No three-dimensional examples of intact pillows currently exist.
(E) The origin of pillow lava is not yet known.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C

25. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

(A) analyzing the source of a scientific controversy
(B) criticizing some geologists' methodology
(C) pointing out the flaws in a geological study
(D) proposing a new theory to explain existing scientific evidence
(E) describing a physical phenomenon

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A

26. The author of the passage would most probably agree that the geologists mentioned ("Some geologists") have made which of the following errors in reasoning?

I. Generalized unjustifiably from available evidence.
II. Deliberately ignored existing counterevidence.
III. Repeatedly failed to take new evidence into account.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A

27. The author implies that the "controversy" might be resolved if

(A) geologists did not persist in using the term "pillow"
(B) geologists did not rely on potentially misleading information
(C) geologists were more willing to confer directly with one another
(D) two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows were available
(E) existing pillows in land outcroppings were not so badly eroded

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B

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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal [#permalink]  18 Mar 2019, 11:41
Why do We reject Option E for Question 1 As The last part of the passage says " ... three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential..thus ascertaining their mode of origin So on this ground we can select Option E ?
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal [#permalink]  19 Mar 2019, 02:07
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(E) The origin of pillow lava is not yet known.

E says that we DO NOT know the origin of the pillow lava.

However, we do know its formation from the passage. There is only a mismatch in the name but the cause of its formation is documented.

E, actually, says that we do not know. Instead, we do know the process.

So the fact is presented in the passage.

Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?

Only C is NOT documented in the passage.

Regards
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal [#permalink]  01 Aug 2019, 12:35
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal [#permalink]  01 Aug 2019, 13:17
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Expert's post
The 26th question is tough.

Mainly, you have to go through the reverse process: instead to go passage >> questions attack it the other way around: see if the option somehow is present or can be inferred from the passage.

Quote:
Adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.

B and C have no traces of information or inference in the passage.

Hope this helps.
Regards
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is cal   [#permalink] 01 Aug 2019, 13:17
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