It is currently 23 Aug 2019, 05:55
My Tests

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 16 May 2014
Posts: 594
GRE 1: Q165 V161
Followers: 100

Kudos [?]: 520 [1] , given: 64

Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2016, 05:31
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
00:00

Question Stats:

84% (03:16) correct 15% (03:16) wrong based on 32 sessions
Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was not a fluid, egalitarian society where individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral conditions. At least so argues E. Pessen in his iconoclastic study of the very rich in the United States between 1825 and 1850.

Pessen does present a quantity of examples, together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics, to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class. Though active in commerce or the professions, most of the wealthy were not self-made but had inherited family fortunes. In no sense mercurial, these great fortunes survived the financial panics that destroyed lesser ones. Indeed, in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share until by 1850 it owned half of the community’s wealth. Although these observations are true, Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden, plutocratic society even before industrialization.
4. According to the passage, Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT:

A) They formed a distinct upper class.
B) Many of them were able to increase their holdings.
C) Some of them worked as professionals or in business.
D) Most of them accumulated their own fortunes.
E) Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


5. Which of the following best states the author’s main point?

A) Pessen’s study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early-nineteenth-century America.
B) Tocqueville’s analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period.
C) Pessen’s study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century.
D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented.
E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic systems in the United States from 1825 to 1850, but he draws conclusions that are incorrect.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E



Practice Questions
Question: 4,5
Page: 65
Difficulty: Medium

_________________

My GRE Resources
Free GRE resources | GRE Prep Club Quant Tests
If you find this post helpful, please press the kudos button to let me know ! :)

1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 16 May 2014
Posts: 594
GRE 1: Q165 V161
Followers: 100

Kudos [?]: 520 [1] , given: 64

Re: Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2016, 05:33
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post

Explanation


1. D
For this question, you are to identify the one statement that CANNOT be correctly attributed to Pessen. Therefore, you must first determine which of the statements given
can be attributed to Pessen. According to the passage, Pessen maintains all of the following: there was a class of “inordinately wealthy” Americans (Choice A); in some
places that class “constantly increased its share” (Choice B); its members were “active in commerce or the professions” (Choice C); and “these great fortunes survived the
financial panics that destroyed lesser ones” (Choice E). However, Pessen also maintains, in contradiction to Choice D, that “most of the wealthy were not self-made but
had inherited family fortunes.” Therefore, Choice D is correct.

2. E
It is important to realize that although most of the passage is devoted to describing Pessen’s study, the author’s main point is to criticize the conclusion Pessen draws.
Choices A, C, and D omit any reference to the author’s critical evaluation of Pessen’s study, and hence are not statements of the author’s main point. Choice B is also incorrect.
Because Pessen criticizes Tocqueville and the author criticizes Pessen, it might seem that the author’s main point is to defend Tocqueville’s analysis. However, the passage
does not indicate that Tocqueville’s analysis is definitive. Choice E is correct. According to the first paragraph, Pessen challenges Tocqueville’s view, but according to
the second paragraph, Pessen’s conclusions are incorrect.
_________________

My GRE Resources
Free GRE resources | GRE Prep Club Quant Tests
If you find this post helpful, please press the kudos button to let me know ! :)

Director
Director
Joined: 09 Nov 2018
Posts: 509
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 39 [0], given: 1

Re: Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was n [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2019, 20:25
Any explanation please?
2 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 30 Jan 2019
Posts: 5
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 18 [2] , given: 0

Re: Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was n [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2019, 22:38
2
This post received
KUDOS
A short but very troublesome passage as it is difficult to understand. Nevertheless, the flow of thought is palpable.

Detail question and can be found in the middle of the passage.
According to the passage, Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT:
(A)They formed a distinct upper class. Mentioned in the passage. Top 1%'s wealth was not ephemeral (meaning short-lived) and hence they were distinct.
(B)Many of them were able to increase their holdings. Also, verbatim from the passage.
(C)Some of them worked as professionals or in business. This is also mentioned in the passage - "Though active in commerce or the professions, most of"
(D)Most of them accumulated their own fortunes. Perfect - Pessen states that the fortunes were mostly accumulated and hereditary and not earned by them.
(E)Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals. Also mentioned.

Tricky because some of the words in the options can confuse those whose first language is not English. Also, the author ends with stating that Pessen though did make correct observations his conclusions were not on point.
The author's attitude toward Pessen's presentation of statistics can be best described as
(A) disapproving TRAP - this focusses only on the latter half of the last conclusion. However, the entire passage focusses on how the observations made by Pessen's study were true. VERY TRICKY!
(B) shocked Out of scope. No reason to suspect shock.
(C) suspicious Again, same as above.
(D) amused Again, why would the author be amused? Discard.
(E) laudatory Purely out of the process of elimination as well as the fact that the author has spent the entire passage in describing the theory by Pessen the author surely does agree with the observations. Hence this is the correct choice. Tricky.


Need to know the meaning of the word "iconoclastic" - which means challenging the set principles. Also, the opening line is a giveaway that Pessen is stating that someone is wrong. Next, the author does agree that Pessen's observations were right on, but goes on to say that the conclusions drawn from them were overestimations and hence incorrect.
Which of the following best states the author's main point?
(A) Pessen's study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early nineteenth-century America. Too extreme to be the main point. Also, does not capture the essence of the passage.
(B) Tocqueville's analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period. 180 Opposite of what is mentioned in the passage. The first line is evidence for it. :-)
(C) Pessen's study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century. Again, 180 opposite of main idea.
(D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented. TRAP - they are well documented but this is not the full picture. Hence not the main point.
(E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic system in the United States from 1825 to 1850, but he draws conclusions that are incorrect. Perfect - this is exactly what we are looking for.

Hope answers are helpful. :-)
_________________

Regards,
Gladi



“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)

Manager
Manager
Joined: 24 Dec 2018
Posts: 68
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 59 [0], given: 1

Re: Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was [#permalink] New post 14 Aug 2019, 23:15
Question - 1 - According to the passage, Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT:

Choice D - Most of them accumulated their own fortunes. CORRECT

The passage clearly states that:

Though active in commerce or the professions, most of the wealthy were not self-made but had inherited family fortunes.


Choice A - They formed a distinct upper class. WRONG

This is wrong because the passage states -

Pessen does present a quantity of examples, together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics, to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class

Indeed, in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share until by 1850 it owned half of the community’s wealth.


Choice B - Many of them were able to increase their holdings. WRONG

This is wrong because the passage states that:

Indeed, in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantlyincreased its shareuntil by 1850 it owned half of the community’s wealth.


Choice C - Some of them worked as professionals or in business. WRONG

This is wrong because the passage states that:

Though active in commerce or the professions, most of the wealthy were not self-made but had inherited family fortunes.



Choice E - Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals. WRONG

This is wrong because the passage states that:

In no sense mercurial, these great fortunes survived the financial panics that destroyed lesser ones.



Question - 2 - Which of the following best states the author’s main point?

Choice E - Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic systems in the United States from 1825 to 1850, but he draws conclusions that are incorrect. CORRECT

The author clearly mentions in the last sentences that E.Pessen draws wrong conclusions on the basis of correct data

Although these observations are true, Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden, plutocratic society even before industrialization.

Choice A - Pessen’s study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early-nineteenth-century America. WRONG

Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong.

Clearly the author does not consider Pessen as having overturned (too extreme a word) the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early-nineteenth-century America. The extreme word overturned is red flag worth considering.

"At least so argues E. Pessen..."

again proves that the author himself does not subscribe to Pessen's view.


Choice B - Tocqueville’s analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period. WRONG

The fact that the author disagrees with Pessen's conclusions does not mean that he supports Tocqueville (I like the name). Also definitive is too strong a word and is a red flag.

Plus, this is not the main point.

Choice - C - Pessen’s study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century. WRONG

The author in fact disagrees with this conclusion and says that " Pessen overestimates their (true observations) importance" in concluding that "that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden, plutocratic society even before industrialization."

Plus, this is not the main point.

Choice D - The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented. WRONG

Pessen does present a quantity of examples, together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics, to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class.

Thus he presents only a quantity of examples, and we cannot conclude on this basis that they were "well documented".

Also, well document is an extreme phrase and should trigger the red flags in you.

Plus, this is not the main point.
Re: Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2019, 23:15
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian America was

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GRE Prep Club Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GRE Prep Club Rules| Contact

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group

Kindly note that the GRE® test is a registered trademark of the Educational Testing Service®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by ETS®.