**Quote:**

The University of Maryland, University of Vermont, and Emory University have each 4 soccer players. If a team of 9 is to be formed with an equal number of players from each university, how many number of ways can the selections be done?

To avoid using Combination or Permutation notation, think through the problem logically.

If a team of nine is to be formed with an equal number of players from three teams, then each team must contribute 3 players. Since there are 4 players available from each team that means that in each combination only one player will be left out, which implies that at any given time one of the 4 players could be left out. Therefore, there are logically only 4 ways to select the playing players from each team.

Then, since there are 4 available combinations from each team and three teams in total, add those three outcomes together to find that there are 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 different combinations of available players, which matches choice C.