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The transplantation of organs from one individual to another

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The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 21 Jun 2014, 23:18
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The transplantation of organs from one individual to another normally involves two major problems: organ rejection is likely unless the transplantation antigens of both individuals are nearly identical, and the introduction of any unmatched transplantation antigens induces the development by the recipient of donor-specific lymphocytes that will produce violent rejection of further transplantations from that donor. However, we have found that among many strains of rats these “normal” rules of transplantation are not obeyed by liver transplants. Not only are liver transplants never rejected, but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently. Our hypothesis is that many strains of rats simply cannot mount a sufficiently vigorous destructive immune-response (using lymphocytes) to outstrip the liver’s relatively great capacity to protect itself from immune-response damage and that the systematic unresponsiveness observed is due to concentration of the recipient’s donor specific lymphocytes at the site of the liver transplant.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to treat the accepted generalizations about organ transplanatation in which of the following ways?

(A) Explicate their main feature
(B) Suggest an alternative to them
(C) Examine their virtues and limitations
(D) Criticize the major evidence used to support them
(E) Present findings that qualify them

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that an important difference among strains of rats is the

(A) size of their livers
(B) constitution of their skin
(C) strength of their immune-response reactions
(D) sensitivity of their antigens
(E) adaptability of their lymphocytes

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


3. According to the hypothesis of the author, after a successful liver transplant, the reason that rats do not reject further transplants of other organs from the same donor is that the

(A) transplantation antigens of the donor and the recipient become matched
(B) lymphocytes of the recipient are weakened by the activity of the transplanted liver
(C) subsequently transplanted organ is able to repair the damage caused by the recipient’s immuneresponse reaction
(D) transplanted liver continues to be the primary locus for the recipient’s immune-response reaction
(E) recipient is unable to manufacture the lymphocytes necessary for the immune-response reaction

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


4. Which of the following new findings about strains of rats that do not normally reject liver transplants, if true, would support the authors’ hypothesis?

I. Stomach transplants are accepted by the recipients in all cases
II. Increasing the strength of the recipient’s immune-response reaction can induce livertransplant rejection
III. Organs from any other donor can be transplanted without rejection after liver transplantation
IV. Prevailing lymphocytes from being concentrated at the liver transplant produces acceptance of skin transplants

(A) II only
(B) I and III only
(C) II and IV only
(D) I, II, and III only
(E) I, II, and IV only

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


Last edited by Carcass on 11 Jul 2017, 06:27, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question and added the OA
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Re: gre rc practice 2 [#permalink] New post 31 Aug 2014, 18:01
answers to the questions?
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Re: gre rc practice 2-transplantation of organs from one [#permalink] New post 20 Jun 2017, 03:23
1. e
2. c
3. d
4. c

I think.
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Re: gre rc practice 2-transplantation of organs from one [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2017, 13:22
SoleMarksman wrote:
1. e
2. c
3. d
4. c

I think.

Are you sure?
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2017, 06:28
Expert's post
Formatted the passage and added the OA.

Ask if something is not clear.

Thank you
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2017, 02:49
Hi,

Can anyone explain answer of 3 and 4?
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 05 Sep 2017, 02:46
Expert's post
For the third one the answer is in this sentence of the passage

Quote:
Our hypothesis is that many strains of rats simply cannot mount a sufficiently vigorous destructive immune-response (using lymphocytes) to outstrip the liver’s relatively great capacity to protect itself from immune-response damage


I.E the liver protects itself. As such, it is still the locus or site o the immune system.

For the fourth one, this is really tough, following the answer's order, we do have

I. Stomach transplants are accepted by the recipients in all cases


This is not true because the answers says that the stomach is accepted in all cases but we do know that in this scenario when rats are transplanted is a case of donor-specific

II. Increasing the strength of the recipient’s immune-response reaction can induce livertransplant rejection

This is true. We do know that rats have a sort of donor-specific unresponsiveness, which means that in general takes place the rejection. The rats have this capacity.

III. Organs from any other donor can be transplanted without rejection after liver transplantation

this is not true. We do know that the case is donor-specific NOT any others

IV. Prevailing lymphocytes from being concentrated at the liver transplant produces acceptance of skin transplants

This is not true. It is exactly the contrary. We do have a concentration of lymphocytes in rats' liver for not having rejection from a specific donor.

Hope this helps

regards
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 06 Sep 2017, 17:19
Is there anyway to be able to actually select the answer to the question? Instead of revealing the answer, can you click on the choice A,B,C,D and E? Thanks for all you do!
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2017, 05:18
why the answer of question 1 --- e
to treat the accepted generalizations about organ transplanatation in which of the following ways?

(B) Suggest an alternative to them
this answer seems right to me?
please explain why e is the right option?
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another [#permalink] New post 27 Sep 2017, 06:52
Expert's post
leonidbasin1 wrote:
Is there anyway to be able to actually select the answer to the question? Instead of revealing the answer, can you click on the choice A,B,C,D and E? Thanks for all you do!



We are going to implement it as we do have on gmatclub.

Thank you for your patience.

regards
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Re: The transplantation of organs from one individual to another   [#permalink] 27 Sep 2017, 06:52
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