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The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P

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The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2017, 10:08
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Select the sentence in the second or third paragraph of the passage that provides empirical evidence in favor of using Navajo for secure communications.


The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Reared on the Navajo reservation, Johnston was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search fro a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages, notably Choctaw, had been used in World War I to encode messages.

Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that fewer than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.

Early in 1942, Johnston met with Major General Clayton B. Vogel, the commanding general of Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, and his staff to convince them of the Navajo language's value as code. Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds. Machines of the time required 30 minutes to perform the same job. Convinced, Vogel recommended to the Commandant of the Marine Corps that the Marines recruit 200 Navajos.

ANSWER:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Correct answer: Sentence 4: Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity.

My answer was: Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds.


Please help explain. Thanks so much.

Last edited by Carcass on 05 Feb 2017, 10:12, edited 1 time in total.
Edited by Carcass
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Re: The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2017, 10:17
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enbea wrote:
Select the sentence in the second or third paragraph of the passage that provides empirical evidence in favor of using Navajo for secure communications.


The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Reared on the Navajo reservation, Johnston was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search fro a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages, notably Choctaw, had been used in World War I to encode messages.

Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that fewer than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.

Early in 1942, Johnston met with Major General Clayton B. Vogel, the commanding general of Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, and his staff to convince them of the Navajo language's value as code. Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds. Machines of the time required 30 minutes to perform the same job. Convinced, Vogel recommended to the Commandant of the Marine Corps that the Marines recruit 200 Navajos.

ANSWER:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Correct answer: Sentence 4: Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity.

My answer was: Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds.


Please help explain. Thanks so much.


We do need a reason why Jonston thought that Navajo was a good way to communicate secretly. The stimulus says: empirical eveidence. Your answer demonstates in which context the Navajo works but does not explain WHY.......

The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston >>>>>>>>>>> Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity.


Hope this helps.

regards
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Re: The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2017, 10:24
Carcass wrote:
enbea wrote:
Select the sentence in the second or third paragraph of the passage that provides empirical evidence in favor of using Navajo for secure communications.


The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Reared on the Navajo reservation, Johnston was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search fro a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages, notably Choctaw, had been used in World War I to encode messages.

Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that fewer than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.

Early in 1942, Johnston met with Major General Clayton B. Vogel, the commanding general of Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, and his staff to convince them of the Navajo language's value as code. Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds. Machines of the time required 30 minutes to perform the same job. Convinced, Vogel recommended to the Commandant of the Marine Corps that the Marines recruit 200 Navajos.

ANSWER:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Correct answer: Sentence 4: Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity.

My answer was: Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions, demonstrating that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds.


Please help explain. Thanks so much.


We do need a reason why Jonston thought that Navajo was a good way to communicate secretly. The stimulus says: empirical eveidence. Your answer demonstates in which context the Navajo works but does not explain WHY.......

The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston >>>>>>>>>>> Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because it is an unwritten language of extreme complexity.


Hope this helps.

regards


My confusion is that empirical means "verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic." My sentence selection indicates experience/observation. The correct answer choice appears to me to be based in logic.
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Re: The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2017, 10:58
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You are perfectly right about the meaning of empirical: which means actually: having proves.

However, if you read the following sentences after the OA

Quote:
Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that fewer than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.


You do have.
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Re: The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2017, 11:26
Carcass wrote:
You are perfectly right about the meaning of empirical: which means actually: having proves.

However, if you read the following sentences after the OA

Quote:
Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that fewer than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.


You do have.


I apologize, I'm still confused with this.

Please clear up where I am wrong: Discussion of syntax, tonal qualities, dialect, lack of an alphabet/symbols, prevalence (geographic or not) aren't observable/based on experience (they are just facts that allow us to logically conclude something). And even if they were empirical, the OA should be one of these sentences--not the sentence before it.

The way I read it, it appears the 'test' that was set up allowed them to observe/experience the effects first-hand, which is why I chose that sentence.
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Re: The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2017, 11:55
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Empirical: derived from or guided by experience or experiment.

And all those elements such as symbols or alphabet are derived from experience......these are "empirical.
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Re: The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from P   [#permalink] 05 Feb 2017, 11:55
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