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The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t

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The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 09 Feb 2019, 02:46
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The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were; improved far more than others.

The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. It ranges from a passive, free-floating awareness to a highly focused, active fixation. The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased. The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction. Arousal is at first general, with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem; then gradually the activation is channeled. Thus begins concentration, the holding of consistent images. One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes.

The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. For both, arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it, but the animal does experience something like it. The predator is searchingly aggressive, inner-directed, tuned by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones, but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than, say, a hungry lizard's instinctive snap at a passing beetle. Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities-in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday's unforgotten lessons. The herbivore prey is of a different mind. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silk-thin veils of tranquility over an explosive endocrine system.
The author is primarily concerned with

(A) disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores
(B) describing a relationship between animals intelligence and their ecological roles
(C) establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts
(D) analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores
(E) demonstrating the importance of hormones in mental activity

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


The author refers to a hungry lizard (line 55) primarily in order to

(A) demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of nonmammals
(B) broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example
(C) make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness
(D) provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators
(E) offer an objection to suggestions that all animals lack consciousness

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


It can be inferred from the passage that in animals less intelligent than the mammals discussed in the passage

(A) past experience is less helpful in ensuring the survival
(B) attention is more highly focused
(C) muscular coordination is less highly developed
(D) there is less need for competition among species
(E) environment is more important in establishing the proper ratio of prey to predator

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


The sensitivity described in lines 56-61 is most clearly an example of

(A) "free-floating awareness" (lines 16-17)
(B) "flooding of impulses in the brain stem" (lines 29-30)
(C) "the holding of consistent images" (lines 31-32)
(D) "integration of details with perceived ends and purposes" (lines 37-38)
(E) "silk-thin veils of tranquility" (line 64)

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


The author's attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as

(A) superior and condescending
(B) lighthearted and jocular
(C) apologetic and conciliatory
(D) wistful and tender
(E) respectful and admiring

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions?

I. Why is an aroused herbivore usually fearful?
II. What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals?
III. What occurs when the stimulus that causes arousal of a mammal is removed?

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


According to the passage, improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following?

(A) The interplay of predator and prey
(B) Persistence of free-floating awareness in animals of the grasslands
(C) Gradual dominance of warm-blooded mammals over cold-blooded reptiles
(D) Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species
(E) Improvement of the capacity for memory among herbivores and carnivores

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT

(A) the production of adrenaline
(B) the production of norepinephrine
(C) a heightening of sensitivity to stimuli
(D) an increase in selectivity with respect to stimuli
(E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E



Note: this passage is also in the OG 2nd edition but with fewer questions than this from OG 10th edition https://greprepclub.com/forum/the-evolu ... 13238.html
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2019, 10:14
5? E?
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2019, 10:16
How come the answer of the last question is E when it is already mentioned in the passage about the brain stem?
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2019, 10:22
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Dear Sir,

please tell me for which question/s you need help for.

I read two replies. Not so clear. We are here to help you.

Thank you
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2019, 10:33
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How is the answer for the 8th/last question E?
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2019, 16:36
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Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands

A and B are mentioned in the passage

From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased. The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings.

From this C and D are mentioned.

Only E is not mentioned in the passage. So it is correct.

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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 08 Aug 2019, 22:08
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1. Option B is correct and it was introduced and explained in the first paragraph.

2. The example appears in the last paragraph. The last paragraph is primarily about linking intelligence to the consciousness. So, option C fits in properly.

3. Option A is explained in the last paragraph with the lizard example.

4. The consciousness is explained by the end of the 3rd paragraph and the sensitivity described must be an example of option D.

5. Yes, the predator mammals are described with several positive attributes. So, respectful and admiring fits well.

6. I and II are explained in the passage.

7. Option A fits in here. The improvement will happen with gradual interplay.

8. Option E is not mentioned in the passage.
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 14 Aug 2019, 19:41
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Question 1 - The author is primarily concerned with

(B) describing a relationship between animals intelligence and their ecological roles

The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were; improved far more than others.

The first paragraph sets the tone for the entire paragraph, which is about how the interaction between the carnivores and herbivores produced different kinds of intelligence in herbivores and carnivores and how they evolved differently.

Question 2 - The author refers to a hungry lizard (line 55) primarily in order to

For both, arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it, but the animal does experience something like it. The predator is searchingly aggressive, inner-directed, tuned by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones, but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than, say, a hungry lizard's instinctive snap at a passing beetle.

The aim is clearly to prove that the animal consciousness is closer to the higher human consciousness (a higher level of consciousness) than that of the instinctive consciousness of a lizard. Hence the answer is Choice C.

(C) make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness


Question - 3 It can be inferred from the passage that in animals less intelligent than the mammals discussed in the passage


One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes.

Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities-in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday's unforgotten lessons.

Therefore animals less intelligent than those discussed in the passage cannot use the past as a reference to solve today's problems.

(A) past experience is less helpful in ensuring the survival


Question - 4 The sensitivity described in lines 56-61 is most clearly an example of

Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities-in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday's unforgotten lessons.

(D) "integration of details with perceived ends and purposes" (lines 37-38)


Question - 5 - The author's attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as

The author's description of the intelligence of the mammals in detail and especially comparing it to human consciousness is a clear indication of the respect he feels for them. Plus the heavy use of superlatives such as "marvelously", "smarter", "aggressive", "apprehension of ever more subtle signals" while describing the animals and their intelligence functions clearly indicate the admiration he feels for them.

(E) respectful and admiring


Question - 6 - The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions?

I. Why is an aroused herbivore usually fearful?
II. What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals?
III. What occurs when the stimulus that causes arousal of a mammal is removed?

We have answers for I and II, but not III

(C) I and II only


Question - 7 - According to the passage, improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following?

The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were; improved far more than others.

(A) The interplay of predator and prey


Question - 8 - According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT

(E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem

While it states that "The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem", it does not state that there is an expansion of the range of states. Hence it is the correct answer.

There is evidence in the passage for all of the other choices, as occurring during the process of arousal.
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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 14 Aug 2019, 22:27
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rahack wrote:
How is the answer for the 8th/last question E?



Question - 8 - According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT

(E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem

While it states that "The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem", it does not state that there is an expansion of the range of states. Hence it is the correct answer.

There is evidence in the passage for all of the other choices, as occurring during the process of arousal.

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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t [#permalink] New post 14 Aug 2019, 22:28
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swanshmoh wrote:
How come the answer of the last question is E when it is already mentioned in the passage about the brain stem?


Question - 8 - According to the passage, as the process of arousal in an organism continues, all of the following may occur EXCEPT

(E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem

While it states that "The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem", it does not state that there is an expansion of the range of states. Hence it is the correct answer.

There is evidence in the passage for all of the other choices, as occurring during the process of arousal.

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Re: The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of t   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2019, 22:28
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