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That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the g

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That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the g [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2019, 09:15
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That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the greatest twentieth-century sculptor is all the more remarkable because the greatest resistance to women artists has been, until recently, in the field of sculpture. Since Neolithic times, sculpture has been considered the prerogative of men, partly, perhaps, for purely physical reasons: it was erroneously assumed that women were not suited for the hard manual labor required in sculpting stone, carving wood, or working in r metal. It has been only during the twentieth century that women sculptors have been recognized as major artists, and it has been in the United States, especially since the decades of the fifties and sixties, that women sculptors have shown the greatest originality and creative power. Their rise to prominence parallels the development of sculpture itself in the United States: while there had been a few talented sculptors in the United States before the 1940's, it was only after 1945—when New York was rapidly becoming the art capital of the world—that major sculpture was produced in the United States. Some of the best was the work of women.

By far the most outstanding of these women is Louise Nevelson, who in the eyes of many critics is the most original female artist alive today. One famous and influential critic, Hilton Kramer, said of her work, "For myself, I think Ms. Nevelson succeeds where the painters often fail."

Her works have been compared to the Cubist constructions of Picasso, the Surrealistic objects of Miro, and the Merzbau of Schwitters. Nevelson would be the first to admit that she has been influenced by all of these, as well as by African sculpture, and by Native American and pre-Columbian art, but she has absorbed all these influences and still created a distinctive art that expresses the urban landscape and the aesthetic sensibility of the twentieth century. Nevelson says, "I have always wanted to show the world that art is everywhere, except that it has to pass through a creative mind."

Using mostly discarded wooden objects like packing crates, broken pieces of furniture, and abandoned architectural ornaments, all of which she has hoarded for years, she assembles architectural constructions of great beauty and power. Creating very freely with no sketches, she glues and nails objects together, paints them black, or more rarely white or gold, and places them in boxes. These assemblages, walls, even entire environments create a mysterious, almost awe-inspiring atmosphere. Although she has denied any symbolic or religious intent in her works, their three-dimensional grandeur and even their titles, such as Sky Cathedral and Night Cathedral, suggest such connotations. In some ways, her most ambitious works are closer to architecture than to traditional sculpture, but then neither Louise Nevelson nor her art fits into any neat category.
17. The passage focuses primarily on which of the following?

(A) A general tendency in twentieth-century art
(B) The work of a particular artist
(C) The artistic influences on women sculptors
(D) Critical responses to twentieth-century sculpture
(E) Materials used by twentieth-century sculptors

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


18. Which of the following statements is supported by information given in the passage?

(A) Since 1945 women sculptors in the United States have produced more sculpture than have men sculptors.
(B) Since 1950 sculpture produced in the United States has been the most original and creative sculpture produced anywhere.
(C) From 1900 to 1950 women sculptors in Europe enjoyed more recognition for their work than did women sculptors in the United States.
(D) Prior to 1945 there were many women sculptors whose work was ignored by critics.
(E) Prior to 1945 there was little major sculpture produced by men or women sculptors working in the United States.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


19. The author quotes Hilton Kramer most probably in order to illustrate which of the following?

(A) The realism of Nevelson's work
(B) The unique qualities of Nevelson's style
(C) The extent of critical approval of Nevelson's work
(D) A distinction between sculpture and painting
(E) A reason for the prominence of women sculptors since the 1950's

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


20. Which of the following is one way in which Nevelson's art illustrates her theory as it is expressed in lines?

(A) She sculpts in wood rather than in metal or stone.
(B) She paints her sculptures and frames them in boxes.
(C) She makes no preliminary sketches but rather allows the sculpture to develop as she works.
(D) She puts together pieces of ordinary objects once used for different purposes to make her sculptures.
(E) She does not deliberately attempt to convey symbolic or religious meanings through her sculpture.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


21. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Nevelson's sculptures?

(A) They suggest religious and symbolic meanings.
(B) They do not have qualities characteristic of sculpture.
(C) They are mysterious and awe-inspiring, but not beautiful.
(D) They are uniquely American in style and sensibility.
(E) They show the influence of twentieth-century architecture.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


22. The author regards Nevelson's stature in the art world as "remarkable" in part because of which of the following?

(A) Her work is currently overrated.
(B) Women sculptors have found it especially difficult to be accepted and recognized as major artists.
(C) Nevelson's sculptures are difficult to understand.
(D) Many art critics have favored painting over sculpture in writing about developments in the art world.
(E) Few of the artists prominent in the twentieth century have been sculptors.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


23. Which of the following statements about Nevelson's sculptures can be inferred from the passage?

(A) They are meant for display outdoors.
(B) They are often painted in several colors.
(C) They are sometimes very large.
(D) They are hand carved by Nevelson.
(E) They are built around a central wooden object.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


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Re: That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the g [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2019, 22:52
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A beautiful passage with very clear answers. Got all correct in 7 mins 25 secs.

Quick Gist:The passage goes on to describe famous sculptor Louise Nevelson(LN). It begins with giving background as to why it is remarkable that LN is such a renowned sculptor. It talks about the history of that art in the US. Further goes on to talk about the responses of critics and also her own take on what inspires her & what she thinks about art. The last para talks about the details of her sculptures ( the form, colors used and also the underpinnings of religion) and the author ends by stating that LN belongs to a category of her own!


Need to realize the main point is LN and her art itself.
1. The passage focuses primarily on which of the following?
(A) A general tendency in twentieth-century art Too vague to be the primary focus
(B) The work of a particular artist BINGO - more than 2/3rds of the passage focusses on LN and hence this is it.
(C) The artistic influences on women sculptors Again, too narrow if not completely wrong. Influences of what? On what? Vague at best.
(D) Critical responses to twentieth-century sculpture No critical responses are given - just a few praises showered on a single artist
(E) Materials used by twentieth-century sculptors TRAP - too detailed to be the primary focus & also materials used only by LN are mentioned

Tricky question as not much is given by the question stem - need to carefully go through the answer choices eliminating one by one and also keeping an eye out for some obvious thing mentioned or implied in the passage
2. Which of the following statements is supported by information given in the passage?
(A) Since 1945 women sculptors in the United States have produced more sculpture than have men sculptors. "...produced more sculptors than have men..." not at all mentioned and hence cannot be inferred.
(B) Since 1950 sculpture produced in the United States has been the most original and creative sculpture produced anywhere. Again too extreme this "most original and creative" discard.
(C) From 1900 to 1950 women sculptors in Europe enjoyed more recognition for their work than did women sculptors in the United States. We have only been told that women sculptors faced more hardships and this US vs. Europe comparison cannot be inferred. Discard.
(D) Prior to 1945 there were many women sculptors whose work was ignored by critics. TRAP - this is a half enticing option. Critics have been blamed of ignoring sculptors prior to the NEw York scene but "there were many women sculptors" is what makes it extreme and incorrect.
(E) Prior to 1945 there was little major sculpture produced by men or women sculptors working in the United States. Perfect - this is what is mentioned in the first para

When trying to ascertain the reason behind something in the passage the first order of business is to look around to the closest vicinity for context
3. The author quotes Hilton Kramer most probably in order to illustrate which of the following?
(A) The realism of Nevelson's work "realism" is never discussed
(B) The unique qualities of Nevelson's style TRAP - this could be one way to look at it but this is way too neutral. THe author most definitely wants to praise LN and s using critics words to do it.
(C) The extent of critical approval of Nevelson's work PERFECT! Self-explanatory
(D) A distinction between sculpture and painting Egregious
(E) A reason for the prominence of women sculptors since the 1950's This is mere praise for LN and nothing more

The lines referred are - "I have always wanted to show the world that art is everywhere, except that it has to pass through a creative mind."The two underlined parts are of importance (obviously depicting her approach to art) and we need to look out for things which could possibly symbolize those two.
4. Which of the following is one way in which Nevelson's art illustrates her theory as it is expressed in lines?
(A) She sculpts in wood rather than in metal or stone. What sets one apart from the other? Nothing. Discard.
(B) She paints her sculptures and frames them in boxes. So could so many other folks - nothing remarkable yet.
(C) She makes no preliminary sketches but rather allows the sculpture to develop as she works. Hold - could this signify "passage through the creative mind?" Discard as even sketches could signify the mind after all one has to use grey matter in either case.
(D) She puts together pieces of ordinary objects once used for different purposes to make her sculptures. Looks better than Option (C) - as ordinary objects signify the "art is everywhere" theme perfectly.
(E) She does not deliberately attempt to convey symbolic or religious meanings through her sculpture.Not noteworthy - infact author goes on to say the opposite about religious underpinnings in her work.

Important to understand the author's tone to deal with this. The author is highly positive ( almost fanboy like :-) ) towards LN ( and rightly so! :-) ) Also, if none of the options make sense at first - we need to look more closely as you will see the obvious positive tone of the author is not asked in this question due to the options
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Nevelson's sculptures?
(A) They suggest religious and symbolic meanings. Hold - completely off track from what is was expected based on authors tone This is the right choice as the author does mention that the names and some sculptures have religious underpinnings even though LN denies it.
(B) They do not have qualities characteristic of sculpture. Negative outlook - opposite to author's approach.
(C) They are mysterious and awe-inspiring, but not beautiful. "Not beautiful?" Duh. No brainer to discard this one.
(D) They are uniquely American in style and sensibility. Again - the author never says that anything is "Yankee-like" about her. In fact, the self-description of LN tells us that she has been influenced by multiple cultures and regions of the world. No reason for the author to believe otherwise.
(E) They show the influence of twentieth-century architecture. Again TRAP - the art is a gray area between sculpture and architecture but nothing about "twentieth-century architecture" Hence discard. A tough one!

FInally an easy detail question
6. The author regards Nevelson's stature in the art world as "remarkable" in part because of which of the following?
(A) Her work is currently overrated. Opposite to what the author believes. She deserves all the praise she gets.
(B) Women sculptors have found it especially difficult to be accepted and recognized as major artists. Perfect - this is the continuation of the sentence after "remarkable" is used by the author
(C) Nevelson's sculptures are difficult to understand. Not false but is this why the author calls them "remarkable"? If you do not understand the reference take a hint from the proximity of the two things. :-)
(D) Many art critics have favored painting over sculpture in writing about developments in the art world. Completly unrelated.
(E) Few of the artists prominent in the twentieth century have been sculptors. Again - TRAP - but in the context this is not what she is considered remarkable

Detail question but not straightforward at all. Inference type so we need to be 100% sure of the correct choice.
7. Which of the following statements about Nevelson's sculptures can be inferred from the passage?
(A) They are meant for display outdoors. Kept in boxes but not necessarily meant for the outdoors. Discard as we cannot be certain of this.
(B) They are often painted in several colors. 180 opposite - few colors used - black white & golden. Discard.
(C) They are sometimes very large. Perfect! They sometimes take up the whole environment & there is no clear distinction between her art being either sculpture or architecture.
(D) They are hand carved by Nevelson. Tools are not mentioned.
(E) They are built around a central wooden object.All types of wooden objects from daily use are used. Discard.

Hope this explanation is helpful. :-)
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Gladi



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Re: That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the g   [#permalink] 08 Mar 2019, 22:52
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That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the g

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