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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evoluti

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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evoluti [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2019, 14:32
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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Araneidae or the Uloboridae families, the origin of the orb web can be determined only by ascertaining whether the families are related. Recent taxonomic analysis of individuals from both families indicates that the families evolved from different ancestors, thereby contradicting Wiehle's theory. This theory postulates that the families must be related, based on the assumption that complex behavior, such as web building, could evolve only once. According to Kullman, web structure is the only characteristic that suggests a relationship between families. The families differ in appearance, structure of body hair, and arrangement of eyes. Only Uloborids lack venom glands. Further identification and study of characteristic features will undoubtedly answer the question of the evolution of the orb web.
17. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) settle the question of whether orb webs evolved once or more than once
(B) describe scientific speculation concerning an issue related to the evolution of orb webs
(C) analyze the differences between the characteristic features of spiders in the Araneidae and Uloboridae families
(D) question the methods used by earlier investigators of the habits of spiders
(E) demonstrate that Araneidae spiders are not related to Uloboridae spiders

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


18. It can be inferred from the passage that all orb-weaving spiders belong to types of spiders that

(A) lack venom glands
(B) are included either in the Uloboridae or Araneidae families
(C) share few characteristic features with other spider types
(D) comprise less than a third of all known types of spiders
(E) are more recently evolved than other types of spiders

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


19. According to the passage, members of the Araneidae family can be distinguished from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT

(A) the presence of venom glands
(B) the type of web they spin
(C) the structure of their body hair
(D) the arrangement of their eyes
(E) their appearance

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


20. Which of the following statements, if true, most weakens Wiehle's theory that complex behavior could evolve only once?

(A) Horses, introduced to the New World by the Spaniards, thrived under diverse climatic conditions.
(B) Plants of the Palrnaceae family, descendants of a common ancestor, evolved unique seed forms even though the plants occupy similar habitats throughout the world.
(C) All mammals are descended from a small, rodent-like animal whose physical characteristics in some form are found in all its descendants.
(D) Plants in the Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, although they often look alike and have developed similar mechanisms to meet the rigors of the desert, evolved independently.
(E) The Cuban anole, which was recently introduced in the Florida wilds, is quickly replacing the native Florida chameleon because the anole has no competitors.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


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Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evoluti [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2019, 18:49
1. Although it is mentioned in the passage about whether orb webs evolved once or more than once. The main purpose of the passage is to determine the origin of orb webs.

2. This is a tricky question, you should not get confused between the options B and D. This question is asking about all orb-weaving spiders. The answer is in second line, about half the 35000 known kinds of spiders that make webs, a third of web weavers make orb webs.

3. It is mentioned in the passage that Araneidae and Uloboridae family can be distinguishes by other option choices except the type of web they spin.

4. What is Wiehle’s theory, it is find whether the families are related, how are they sharing same characteristics if they are not related. Among the options, option D explains that two plants share different families but they often look alike and also developed similar mechanisms. This weakens Wiehle’s theory as they are supposed to share the same ancestors according to the Wiehle’s theory.
Re: One of the questions of interest in the study of the evoluti   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2019, 18:49
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One of the questions of interest in the study of the evoluti

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