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OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he

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OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2016, 08:12
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55% (01:09) correct 44% (02:05) wrong based on 118 sessions
Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view that Antarctica was first sighted around 1820, but some sixteenth-century European maps show a body that resembles the polar landmass, even though explorers of the period never saw it. Some scholars, therefore, argue that the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients, whose maps are known to have served as models for the European cartographers.

Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to the inference drawn by the scholars?

A) The question of who first sighted Antarctica in modern times is still much debated, and no one has been able to present conclusive evidence.
B) Between 3,000 and 9,000 years ago, the world was warmer than it is now, and the polar landmass was presumably smaller.
C) There are only a few sixteenth-century global maps that show a continental landmass at the South Pole.
D) Most attributions of surprising accomplishments to ancient civilizations or even extraterrestrials are eventually discredited or rejected as preposterous.
E) Ancient philosophers believed that there had to be a large landmass at the South Pole to balance the northern continents and make the world symmetrical.



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Question: 25
Page: 212
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2016, 08:12
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Explanation

The inference that Antarctica was discovered by the ancients would be weakened if there were an alternative explanation of why the ancients might have drawn a land-mass in that area on their maps. Choice E provides just such an explanation, so it is the correct answer. Choice A is incorrect because the identity of the modern discoverer of the Antarctica has no bearing on why the continent was included on sixteenth-century maps. Since the ancients referred to in the passage likely postdate the warm period mentioned in Choice B, that option is also incorrect. The passage never mentions how many sixteenth-century maps show a southern polar landmass, and the argument does not depend upon any particular quantity, so Choice C is incorrect. Choice D comments upon the conclusion but does not pertain to the argument itself, so it is also incorrect.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2018, 05:43
I think option D as a valid choice. Since this question asks for weakening the scholar's conclusion, so if previously, accomplishment by ancient civilization had been discredited then
this may weaken the scholar conclusion.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 26 Feb 2018, 13:22
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D is out of scope.

We need a valid reason that shows to us that the European cartographers used certain maps by the ancient.

In this case, already the philosophers knew about Antarctica. So the cartographers could easily have referred to this and not to the maps of the ancient, put in medieval age.

Hope this helps.

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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2018, 04:11
To answer the question we should find the choice explaining the reason why the ancients didn't discovered the North Pole but still is depicted in the maps. The choice E explains this the best.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2018, 08:10
E is the right answer as it explains why the ancients might have drawn the Antarctica on their maps without it being discovered.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2018, 13:18
E is the answer. Ancient philosophers predicted the existence of South Pole landmass without actually discovering it in person, so it is possible that European mapmakers learned about Antartica via studying philosophy rather than ancients' map.
Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he   [#permalink] 19 Dec 2018, 13:18
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