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OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he

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OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2016, 08:12
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Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view that Antarctica was first sighted around 1820, but some sixteenth-century European maps show a body that resembles the polar landmass, even though explorers of the period never saw it. Some scholars, therefore, argue that the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients, whose maps are known to have served as models for the European cartographers.

Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to the inference drawn by the scholars?

A) The question of who first sighted Antarctica in modern times is still much debated, and no one has been able to present conclusive evidence.
B) Between 3,000 and 9,000 years ago, the world was warmer than it is now, and the polar landmass was presumably smaller.
C) There are only a few sixteenth-century global maps that show a continental landmass at the South Pole.
D) Most attributions of surprising accomplishments to ancient civilizations or even extraterrestrials are eventually discredited or rejected as preposterous.
E) Ancient philosophers believed that there had to be a large landmass at the South Pole to balance the northern continents and make the world symmetrical.



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Question: 25
Page: 212
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2016, 08:12
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Explanation

The inference that Antarctica was discovered by the ancients would be weakened if there were an alternative explanation of why the ancients might have drawn a land-mass in that area on their maps. Choice E provides just such an explanation, so it is the correct answer. Choice A is incorrect because the identity of the modern discoverer of the Antarctica has no bearing on why the continent was included on sixteenth-century maps. Since the ancients referred to in the passage likely postdate the warm period mentioned in Choice B, that option is also incorrect. The passage never mentions how many sixteenth-century maps show a southern polar landmass, and the argument does not depend upon any particular quantity, so Choice C is incorrect. Choice D comments upon the conclusion but does not pertain to the argument itself, so it is also incorrect.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2018, 05:43
I think option D as a valid choice. Since this question asks for weakening the scholar's conclusion, so if previously, accomplishment by ancient civilization had been discredited then
this may weaken the scholar conclusion.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 26 Feb 2018, 13:22
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D is out of scope.

We need a valid reason that shows to us that the European cartographers used certain maps by the ancient.

In this case, already the philosophers knew about Antarctica. So the cartographers could easily have referred to this and not to the maps of the ancient, put in medieval age.

Hope this helps.

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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2018, 04:11
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To answer the question we should find the choice explaining the reason why the ancients didn't discovered the North Pole but still is depicted in the maps. The choice E explains this the best.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 02 Nov 2018, 08:10
E is the right answer as it explains why the ancients might have drawn the Antarctica on their maps without it being discovered.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2018, 13:18
E is the answer. Ancient philosophers predicted the existence of South Pole landmass without actually discovering it in person, so it is possible that European mapmakers learned about Antartica via studying philosophy rather than ancients' map.
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Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 14 Apr 2019, 12:08
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Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view that Antarctica was first sighted around 1820, but some sixteenth-century European maps show a body that resembles the polar landmass, even though explorers of the period never saw it. Some scholars, therefore, argue that the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients, whose maps are known to have served as models for the European cartographers.

Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to the inference drawn by the scholars?

(A) The question of who first sighted Antarctica in modern times is still much debated, and no one has been able to present conclusive , evidence.
(B) Between 3,000 and 9,000 years ago, the world was warmer than it is now, and the polar landmass was presumably smaller.
(C) There are only a few sixteenth-century global maps that show a continental landmass at the South Pole.
(D) Most attributions of surprising accomplishments to ancient civilizations or even extraterrestrials are eventually discredited or rejected as preposterous.
(E) Ancient philosophers believed that there had to be a large landmass at the South Pole to balance the northern continents and make the world symmetrical.
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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 04 May 2019, 02:26
Please put this question into EASY category. Thanks.
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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 04 May 2019, 03:04
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The reason ??

The level of difficulty is taken straight from the book.

if for you is easy, then it is a good hint that your skills have improved :)

Maybe for a novice is still on a medium level or difficult.

It is a matter of perspective.

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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 23 May 2019, 12:59
Y can not C be the answer?

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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 24 May 2019, 09:19
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This is a conclusion/inference question.

C is not mentioned in the passage. therefore, we cannot conclude what C states.

Ask for further assistance.

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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 06 Oct 2020, 05:54
where is the explanation?
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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 06 Oct 2020, 05:57
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what do you mean Sir ??
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Re: Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view [#permalink] New post 07 Oct 2020, 06:28
Can you explain why E is the answer
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 07 Oct 2020, 08:45
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We know that some 16th century European maps show a southern polar mass even though nobody in Europe had seen Antartica. That's evidence.

There's also a piece of evidence at the end: "maps [of the ancients] are known to have served as models for the European cartographers."

Finally, the conclusion: "the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients."

The conclusion is a bold conclusion about extensive travel by the ancients. What would weaken it?

(A) the question of who first sighted Antarctica in modern times still much debated, and no one has been able to present conclusive evidence.
This may be, but it's irrelevant to what the ancients did or didn't do. This is incorrect.

(B) between 3000 and 9000 years ago, the world was warmer than it is now, and the polar landmass was presumably smaller.
Hmm. If Antartica had been smaller, it would have been harder to find, but this doesn't mean that that the ancients couldn't find it. This is incorrect.

(C) there are only a few sixteenth-century global maps that show a continental landmass at the South Pole.
Irrelevant. If there are only some, why do they have that mass to the south? That's the common feature we need to explain: it doesn't have to present on every map. This is incorrect.

(D) most attributions of surprising accomplishments to ancient civilization or even extraterrestrials are eventually discredited or rejected as preposterous.
This is vague and suggestive. Other impressive stuff turned out to be false, so this impressive thing will turn out to be false. This is not a watertight form of argument, so this is incorrect.

(E) ancient philosophers believed that there had to be a large landmass at the south pole to balance the northern continents and make the world symmetrical.
Bingo! The ancients put the southern land mass on their map, not because they sailed there and discovered it, but for philosophical reasons about balance. That totally would explain why an Antartica-like thing would be at the bottom of ancient maps, thus suggesting this to 16th century map makers, but the ancients never left their ports to discover this. They simply sat in their armchairs and came up with this by philosophizing. This would explain how the mass go on the maps without any adventurous sea journeys happening. This is by far the best answer.
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Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he [#permalink] New post 07 Oct 2020, 20:30
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Carcass wrote:
Geographers and historians have traditionally held the view that Antarctica was first sighted around 1820, but some sixteenth-century European maps show a body that resembles the polar landmass, even though explorers of the period never saw it. Some scholars, therefore, argue that the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients, whose maps are known to have served as models for the European cartographers.

Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to the inference drawn by the scholars?

A) The question of who first sighted Antarctica in modern times is still much debated, and no one has been able to present conclusive evidence.
B) Between 3,000 and 9,000 years ago, the world was warmer than it is now, and the polar landmass was presumably smaller.
C) There are only a few sixteenth-century global maps that show a continental landmass at the South Pole.
D) Most attributions of surprising accomplishments to ancient civilizations or even extraterrestrials are eventually discredited or rejected as preposterous.
E) Ancient philosophers believed that there had to be a large landmass at the South Pole to balance the northern continents and make the world symmetrical.


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Question: 25
Page: 212


The reason D cannot be correct is because of the word "Most." It implies that a few accomplishments, although they are preposterous, end up being true. If instead of Most, we had All, then D could be considered an answer.

However, E is still the best answer, since it is mentioned that "the continent must have been discovered and mapped by the ancients". Choice E states that the Ancients drew up the map because they believed it "balanced" the continents, not because they travelled there and discovered it.

Hope that helps.
Re: OG_VPR # 25 Geographers and historians have traditionally he   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2020, 20:30
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