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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi

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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 22 Jun 2019, 12:59
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Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi and are necessary for many plants to thrive, but they have escaped widespread investigation until recently for two reasons. First, the symbiotic association is so well-balanced that the roots of host plants show no damage even when densely infected. Second, the fungi cannot as yet be cultivated in the absence of a living root. Despite these difficulties, there has been important new work that suggests that this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly superphosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate. Mycorrhizal benefits are not limited to improved phosphate uptake in host plants. In legumes, mycorrhizal inoculation has increased nitrogen fixation beyond levels achieved by adding phosphate fertilizer alone. Certain symbiotic associations also increase the host plant's resistance to harmful root fungi. Whether this resistance results from exclusion of harmful fungi through competition for sites, from metabolic change involving antibiotic production, or from increased vigor is undetermined.
17. Which of the following most accurately describes the passage?

(A) A description of a replicable experiment
(B) A summary report of new findings
(C) A recommendation for abandoning a difficult area of research
(D) A refutation of an earlier hypothesis
(E) A confirmation of earlier research

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


18. The level of information in the passage above is suited to the needs of all of the following people EXCEPT

(A) a researcher whose job is to identify potentially profitable areas for research and product development
(B) a state official whose position requires her to alert farmers about possible innovations in farming
(C) an official of a research foundation who identifies research projects for potential funding
(D) a biologist attempting to keep up with scientific developments in an area outside of his immediate area of specialization
(E) a botanist conducting experiments to determine the relationship between degree of mycorrhizal infection and expected uptake of phosphate

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


19. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following has been a factor influencing the extent to which research on mycorrhizal fungi has progressed?

(A) Lack of funding for such research
(B) Lack of immediate application of such research
(C) Lack of a method for identifying mycorrhizal fungi
(D) Difficulties surrounding laboratory production of specimens for study
(E) Difficulties ensuing from the high cost and scarcity of superphosphate fertilizers

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


20. The passage suggests which of the following about the increased resistance to harmful root fungi that some plants infected with mycorrhizal fungi seem to exhibit?

(A) There are at least three hypotheses that might account for the increase.
(B) An explanation lies in the fact that mycorrhizal fungi increase more rapidly in number than harmful root fungi do.
(C) The plants that show increased resistance also exhibit improved nitrogen fixation.
(D) Such increases may be independent of mycorrhizal infection.
(E) It is unlikely that a satisfactory explanation can be found to account for the increase.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2019, 09:52
Hi,
Regarding question two(2), I found following question in a pdf as well;
choices separately and select all that apply
9. It can be inferred from the passage that which of
the following has NOT been a factor influencing the
extent to which research on mycorrhizal fungi has
progressed?
□A Lack of a method for identifying mycorrhizal
fungi
□B Difficulties surrounding laboratory production
of specimens for study
□C Difficulties ensuing from the high cost and
scarcity of superphosphate fertilizers

could someone help me with the question itself in the simplest way and the source of given answers? Thanks
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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2019, 11:45
Expert's post
I do not know where that question comes from.

However, I posted the RC passage straight from the paper Official Guide. Which is clearly the right resource.

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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2020, 23:50
Can someone explain question 18? I selected D, which was wrong
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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2020, 09:48
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mind wrote:
Can someone explain question 18? I selected D, which was wrong


18. The level of information in the passage above is suited to the needs of all of the following people EXCEPT

(A) a researcher whose job is to identify potentially profitable areas for research and product development
The passage says that the symbiotic relationship can be utilized to achieve more economical use of costly superphosphate fertilizer.. So, this can be inferred

(B) a state official whose position requires her to alert farmers about possible innovations in farming
A state official can alert farmers about Mycorrhizal benefits of improving phosphate uptake in host plants and increased nitrogen fixation beyond levels.

(C) an official of a research foundation who identifies research projects for potential funding
The last sentence suggests that this area still requires further research, so this one can be inferred

(D) a biologist attempting to keep up with scientific developments in an area outside of his immediate area of specialization
this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly super phosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate. This chemical related discovery may intrigue a biologist to study the fungi in more detail.

(E) a botanist conducting experiments to determine the relationship between degree of mycorrhizal infection and expected uptake of phosphate
It's neither mentioned nor implied in the passage about up to what degree uptake of phosphate would rise by increasing the level of mycorrhizal infection. We are only told that the infection is related to uptake of phosphate, but no information is provided on their levels. This is the answer.
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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 27 Jan 2020, 17:19
Thank you, theBrahmaTiger. I didn't notice this part of the passage helps eliminate D "this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly super phosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate."

If I'm not mistaken, "can be harnessed" also means "can be further researched"
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Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2020, 04:57
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mind wrote:
Thank you, theBrahmaTiger. I didn't notice this part of the passage helps eliminate D "this symbiotic association can be harnessed to achieve more economical use of costly super phosphate fertilizer and to permit better exploitation of cheaper, less soluble rock phosphate."

If I'm not mistaken, "can be harnessed" also means "can be further researched"


Harnessed here means utilized or used for
Re: Mycorrhizal fungi infect more plants than do any other fungi   [#permalink] 28 Jan 2020, 04:57
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