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In the 1970s, the idea of building so-called “New Towns” to

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In the 1970s, the idea of building so-called “New Towns” to [#permalink] New post 08 Feb 2020, 06:47
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In the 1970s, the idea of building so-called “New Towns” to absorb growth was considered a potential cure-all for urban problems in the United States. It was erroneously assumed that by diverting residents from existing centers, current urban problems would at least get no worse. It was also wrongly assumed that, since European New Towns had been financially and socially successful, the same could be expected in the United States.

However, the ill-considered projects not only failed to relieve pressures on existing cities, but also weakened those cities further by drawing away high income citizens. This increased the concentration of low-income groups—who were unable to provide the necessary tax base to support the cities. Taxpayers who remained were left to carry a greater burden, while industry and commerce sought to escape.

As it turned out, the promoters of New Towns were the developers, builders, and financial institutions, all whose main interest was financial gain. Not surprisingly, development occurred in areas where land was cheap and construction profitable rather than where New Towns were genuinely needed. Moreover, poor planning and legislation produced not the sort of successful New Towns seen in Britain but rather nothing more than sprawling suburbs. Federal regulations designed to promote the New Town concept failed to consider social needs as the European plans did. In fact, the regulations specified virtually all of the ingredients of the typical suburban community.


1. The author’s primary concern in the passage is to

(A) describe the characteristics of American New Towns that made them unsuccessful.
(B) trace the development of the New Town concept in the United States.
(C) list the differences between New Towns in the United States and those in Europe.
(D) explain why New Towns in the United States failed to meet general expectations.
(E) analyze the impact of New Towns on urban centers in the United States.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


2. Based only on the information in the passage, with which of the following statements about New Towns in the United States would the author most likely agree?

(A) They helped dissuade businesses in urban centers from relocating to other areas.
(B) They provided a thriving social center away from the problems of the older city.
(C) They helped reduce air pollution by relocating workplaces to suburbs, where most workers lived.
(D) They thwarted economic redevelopment plans for decaying urban centers.
(E) They provided affluent urban residents an escape from the city.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


3. Which of the following phenomena is most closely analogous to the New Towns established in the United States?

(A) A business that fails as a result of insufficient demand for its products or services
(B) A new game that fails to attain widespread popularity because its rules are unfair
(C) New utility software that solves one computer problem but creates another
(D) A new drug whose side effects are severe enough to discourage people from using it
(E) A scientific theory that lacks supporting empirical evidence

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C

In the 1970s, the idea of building so-called “New Towns” to   [#permalink] 08 Feb 2020, 06:47
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In the 1970s, the idea of building so-called “New Towns” to

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