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If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists sus

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If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists sus [#permalink] New post 18 Jul 2018, 08:49
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If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists suspect it would most likely be on Europa, an ice covered moon orbiting Jupiter. However, NASA recently scrapped an unmanned science mission to Europa and reassigned most of the employees involved in the project to another project that concerns landing an astronaut on Mars. Polls show that Americans are far more fascinated by space travel than they are by discovering life elsewhere in the universe. Critics argue that NASA’s decision-making process places a greater emphasis on public interest than it does on the importance of scientific research.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen NASA’s contention that the critics are misinformed?

(A) In 2013, NASA spent 30% of its total budget on developing a space shuttle that can travel to Mars. In 2018, that figure is expected to drop to 0%.
(B) Studies have shown that Congress traditionally determines NASA’s budget based on its perception of public interest in NASA’s projects.
(C) Some scientists are convinced that a mission to Europa would add immeasurably to our understanding of the universe; others believe that we will gain little insight from exploring Europa.
(D) A new telescope that has been developed in Tokyo allows scientists to look at Europa in ways never possible before and promises to yield more information than the planned mission was designed to provide.
(E) Most Americans feel that a shuttle to Mars is the next logical step in the development of a system that will eventually allow humans to travel to places as far away as Europa and beyond.

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists sus [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2018, 05:50
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Carcass wrote:
If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists suspect it would most likely be on Europa, an ice covered moon orbiting Jupiter. However, NASA recently scrapped an unmanned science mission to Europa and reassigned most of the employees involved in the project to another project that concerns landing an astronaut on Mars. Polls show that Americans are far more fascinated by space travel than they are by discovering life elsewhere in the universe. Critics argue that NASA’s decision-making process places a greater emphasis on public interest than it does on the importance of scientific research.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen NASA’s contention that the critics are misinformed?

(A) In 2013, NASA spent 30% of its total budget on developing a space shuttle that can travel to Mars. In 2018, that figure is expected to drop to 0%.
(B) Studies have shown that Congress traditionally determines NASA’s budget based on its perception of public interest in NASA’s projects.
(C) Some scientists are convinced that a mission to Europa would add immeasurably to our understanding of the universe; others believe that we will gain little insight from exploring Europa.
(D) A new telescope that has been developed in Tokyo allows scientists to look at Europa in ways never possible before and promises to yield more information than the planned mission was designed to provide.
(E) Most Americans feel that a shuttle to Mars is the next logical step in the development of a system that will eventually allow humans to travel to places as far away as Europa and beyond.

Kudos R.A.E


Here as per my understanding we need to show why NASA switched from project 1 to project 2 based on some valid reason and we should show that it is not based on the polls that NASA got carried away but there should something else.

Option D clearly says that when a new telescope can make out everything about Europa and NASA considered this new instrument can help further without investing much. So, they switched.

Carcasss... please share us the official solution.
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Re: If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists sus [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2018, 09:05
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In the argument, the critics mistake correlation for causation. While it is true that most employees were reassigned to the mission to Mars, it is not established that the mission to Europa was scrapped to move the employees to a different project; it’s possible that some other motivation caused the demise of the Europa project. NASA claims that its critics are misinformed.

(A) Irrelevant. The conclusion is based on the critics’ assumption of causation, and this choice fails to address the issue of the motivations underlying NASA’s decision-making process. That the percentage of spending is going to decrease could indicate many possible scenarios, including that NASA is unhappy with the progress of the project and plans to cut future spending or that the organization expects the development of the shuttle to be completed by 2018.

(B) Weakens. If public interest determines its budget, NASA has strong motivation to keep public interest high. Additionally, “budget” is not mentioned in the original argument.

(C) Irrelevant. This statement differentiates between the opinions of some scientists and the opinions of others, but sheds no light on the motivations behind NASA’s decisions.

(D) CORRECT. This answer choice provides an alternative explanation for the decision to abandon the attempt to send an unmanned vessel to Europa; the Tokyo telescope will provide the information that NASA would have obtained from the mission, making the mission unnecessary.

(E) Irrelevant. The conclusion concerns NASA’s motivations; this statement is about the motivations of American citizens. There is no direct relationship between what Americans see as the future of space exploration and the motivations behind NASA’s decision making.

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Re: If life exists elsewhere in the solar system, scientists sus   [#permalink] 23 Jul 2018, 09:05
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