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Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ide

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Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ide [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2017, 11:58
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Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ideas, giving rise to new theories. Recently, a set of 3.3-million- year-old fossils, the remains of the earliest well-preserved child ever found, were discovered in Ethiopia. Estimated to be 3 years old at death, the female child was of the Australopithecus afarensis species, a human ancestor that lived in Africa over 3 million years ago. “Her completeness, antiquity, and age at death make this find of unprecedented importance in the history of paleo- anthropology,” said Zeresenay Alemseged, a noted paleo-anthropologist, opining that the discovery could reconfigure conceptions
about early humans’ capacities.

Previously, afarensis was believed to have abandoned arboreal habitats. However, while the new fossil's lower limbs support the view of an upright stance, its gorilla-like arms suggest that afarensis was still able to swing through trees, initiating a reexamination of long-held theories of early human development. Also, the presence of a hyoid bone, a rarely preserved larynx bone that supports throat muscles, has dramatically affected concepts of the origin of speech. Although primitive and more ape- like than human-like, this fossil hyoid is the first found in such an early human-related species.
The organization of the passage could best be described as

(A) discussing a controversial scientific discovery
(B) contrasting previous theories of development with current findings
(C) illustrating a contention with a specific example
(D) arguing for the importance of a particular field of study
(E) refuting a popular misconception

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


The passage quotes Zeresenay Alemseged in order to

(A) provide evidence to qualify the main idea of the first paragraph
(B) question the claims of other scientists
(C) provide evidence to support the linguistic abilities of the afarensis species
(D) provide corroboration for the significance of the find
(E) provide a subjective opinion that is refuted in the second paragraph

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


Each of the following is cited as a factor in the importance of the discovery of the fossils EXCEPT

(A) the fact that the remains were those of a child
(B) the age of the fossils
(C) the location of the discovery
(D) the species of the fossils
(E) the intact nature of the fossils

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


It can be inferred from the passage's description of the discovered fossil hyoid bone that

(A) Australopithecus afarensis was capable of speech
(B) the discovered hyoid bone is less primitive than the hyoid bone of apes
(C) the hyoid bone is necessary for speech
(D) the discovery of the hyoid bone necessitated the reexamination of prior theories

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


The impact of the discovery of the hyoid bone in the field of archaeology could best be compared to which one of the following examples in another field?

(A) The discovery and analysis of cosmic rays lend support to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe.
(B) The original manuscript of a deceased 19th-century author confirms ideas of the development of an important work of literature.
(C) The continued prosperity of a state-run economy stirs debate in the discipline of macroeconomics.
(D) Newly revealed journal entries by a prominent Civil War-era politician lead to a questioning of certain accepted historical interpretations about the conflict.
(E) Research into the mapping of the human genome gives rise to nascent applications of individually tailored medicines.
(E) the hyoid bone was the most important fossil found at the site

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


Select the sentence that most distinctly undermines an accepted paleo-anthropological theory.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
.......its gorilla-like arms suggest that afarensis was still able to swing through trees, initiating a reexamination of long-held theories of early human development.


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Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ide [#permalink] New post 01 Nov 2017, 01:25
in question 3.. answer given is C
but the location of discovery is mentioned as Ethiopia right?
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Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ide [#permalink] New post 01 Nov 2017, 03:08
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On Except questions, it is often easier to eliminate incorrect answer choices until only one is left.

(A) The fourth sentence of the first paragraph cites a quotation from a noted paleo-anthropologist that the find of the child fossils was of unprecedented importance due to the child's age at death. Therefore, the fact that the remains were those of a child was of substantial significance.
(B) The antiquity (a synonym for age) of the fossils is mentioned in the fourth sentence of the first paragraph as a reason why the fossils were an important discovery.
(C) CORRECT. The location of the fossil discovery is mentioned in the first paragraph of the passage. However, the location is not provided as a reason why the fossils are significant.
(D) This choice is tricky. The second paragraph describes what was previously believed about afarensis and that this evidence dramatically affected certain theories about the development of speech in humans. The fossils were of a human-related species, so the species itself was significant in influencing the theories about human speech.
(E) The fourth sentence of the first paragraph notes that the find was important due its completeness. The intact nature of the fossils is another way of saying that the fossils are complete.


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Re: Archaeological discoveries frequently undermine accepted ide   [#permalink] 01 Nov 2017, 03:08
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