All About BU School of Medicine, a Social Justice-Minded Med School
Looking to apply to a social justice-focused medical school? Find out if BUSM is a good fit for you. [Show summary]
Dr. Kristen Goodell, Associate Dean of Admissions at Boston University School of Medicine, explores student life at BUSM and its social justice-focused approach to medical education, as well as her advice to applicants on navigating its competitive admissions process.
Who gets accepted to BUSM? [Show notes]
Do you have your eye on BU’s medical school? Would you love to attend that program but are a little nervous about the fact that it gets 80 applications for every available seat? Have no fear: BUSM’s Associate Dean of Admissions is today’s guest on Admissions Straight Talk.
Dr. Kristen Goodell is Associate Dean of Admissions at Boston University School of Medicine. She earned her bachelor’s degree at Colby College and her MD at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. She completed her residency in family medicine at Tufts and has been a practicing physician ever since 2007. In addition, from 2012 to 2017, Dr. Goodell served as a Director for Innovation in Medical Education at the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care. In 2017, she was appointed Assistant Dean of Admissions at BUSM and became Associate Dean in 2018.
Can you start by giving us an overview of the BU School of Medicine program, focusing on its more distinctive elements? [2:27]
The most important take-home message to know about BU School of Medicine is that we are a social justice medical school. You see that come out in a number of different ways. You see it in the types of things that we focus on in our curriculum. You see it in the patients that we take care of in our primary academic hospital. And you even see it in the energy and the vibe that we bring to our work. A big place that you see that is in the extra things that our students do in addition to studying for their classes. I could say more specific things about that; I have about one million stories to illustrate the fact that we’re a social justice medical school.
We’re not the only social justice medical school in the United States. There are a few schools that I know of that I would characterize as existing to take care of an underserved population, often a specific underserved population. We are one of those schools. It certainly differentiates us from the other schools in the northeast. A thing that is really interesting about our medical school is that this powerful social justice driver happens in the context of a major research university. We’re not a community school that’s focused on delivering care to one specific community, although we do take care of our patients in our neighborhood. But we are a big academic medical center along with a major research university. What that means is that you see a lot of our areas of expertise and some of our coolest innovations are all focused around the idea of social justice.
One example is that we’re the primary investigative site for a large multicenter trial that is looking to see what happens if you screen every single patient for social determinants of health. Every patient in any of our primary care clinics is asked about their access to food, is asked about their housing situation, if they have transportation for appointments, if they need employment support, all kinds of stuff. We’re doing this big study to see, if we know about those things, would we be able to address them? And then later on, does that impact the patient’s health? It seems like it should be obvious, right? Of course, doctors should hopefully know if their patients don’t have food or a place to live. Except the thing is, in medicine, we often don’t know that because we don’t ask because in medicine we don’t screen for things we can’t treat. But at Boston Medical Center, which is BU School of Medicine’s primary teaching hospital, we’ve developed all of these supports and ways to try to address those issues for patients. We can do this rigorous research where we see, okay, does it really make a difference? We know we care, but can we show that it actually impacts people’s health? That’s an example of how you see that social justice mission in the context of this big research medical school.
Early and consistent clinical exposure throughout the four years of medical school is a critical element in the BUSM curriculum. Are students still having that exposure despite COVID? [5:30]
They are now. The students’ clinical experiences took a hit in the springtime of 2020. That was when COVID really just slammed into the United States, and medical schools all across the country felt that they had to help pull medical students out of their clinical rotations for their own safety. But what we were able to do was really not to stop most experiences, at least not the core curricular experiences. We rearranged them. For example, our first year students typically in their spring semester have what we call the longitudinal preceptorship, where they go with a physician and they see patients in their office. In that setting, they practice their interviewing and physical diagnosis skills. They practice it with patients that are there for their care. So they have to be efficient and be goal directed, and all that stuff. But that normally happens in March and April and May. What we had to do was move that from the first year of spring to the second year fall. Our first year students didn’t get to do it last spring, but by summertime, things had settled down, and by the fall, we said okay, we have to bring these students back.
The school asked all the preceptors that normally do it in the spring, “Hey, can you take students? And furthermore, can you take extra students? Because we need to make sure that everybody is getting their experiences.” It required some flexibility on everyone’s part. First of all, the students had to wait longer, which is not what we want. I took extra students in my clinic. I’m happy to have them, but some of the time I see patients in the evening and Saturdays. So I’m happy to have students, but they’re going to have to come on evenings and Saturdays. So they did, and they were happy to do that. There was a little bit of rearranging. But we did pretty well without reducing the core curricular elements that happen in the clinical setting. And by August, everybody was back in clinic in the regular way. All the students were. Now, students are vaccinated along with health care workers. The vast majority of our students signed right up and said, “Yes, I’ll take it.”
Can you describe BUSM’s extracurricular enrichment activities? [7:57]
We have a series of structured courses that students can take. They’re entirely optional. A couple that I can think of that are very popular include the medical language courses. We offer medical Spanish at several different levels. Those are largely facilitated by students because about 80% of our students speak another language in addition to English. Many of our students come in speaking Spanish, so they’ll help their peers. We offer one for beginners, and then we offer another one for students maybe who have studied some Spanish but are not so sure about using it in the medical setting. We also have a course in Haitian Creole that’s taught by one of our faculty who herself is Haitian, so she leads that course.
In addition, a really cool course is our advocacy curriculum. It also has a lot of student leadership. As a first-year student, you’re a participant in the course. It’s one evening a week. Each session, you have a speaker that comes in to talk about something. I was invited a couple of years ago, because I had testified before Congress in favor of some primary care funding. They wanted to know, “Can you come and tell us about what it’s like if you get to do that?” They’ll have a speaker come in, and then they spend some time on a skills training thing, like how to write a letter to the editor, or how to set up an appointment with your congressional representatives, something like that.
Along with that, the students get into small groups, and they do some kind of a project, a year-long project. Sometimes, the project is a bite-sized one-year project. For example, the year that I was there, a group of students were working to bring dental services to one of our community health centers. Some of our community health centers have dentists and some don’t. They spent a year getting donations of equipment, finding people that would volunteer to staff the clinic, making sure they had all the appropriate permissions in place. And then there’s always a group of students working on some form of single payer healthcare. That one keeps going year after year, but they’ll set a goal for the year, like, “We want the Massachusetts Medical Society to address this particular amendment,” or something like that. That’s one of the examples of these kinds of extracurricular, really structured activities.
We also have an enormous number of entirely student-run groups. The most popular thing that our students do with their time is to participate in some service learning activity. There are about 17 or 18 different student-led service groups, a huge spectrum of what you can do. One of the longest running ones is called the Outreach Van, which is an actual van that students take to different parts of the city. They bring clothes, and they bring food and try to identify people that need to get to medical care.
There’s another one, this is one of my favorites: Our neonatologist, one of their innovations is that they have figured out a better way to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome, which is what babies have when they’re born to addicted mothers. Normally, those babies go to the NICU. In the NICU, they’re in a little plastic isolette, and they get a lot of medications to help ease them through the physical withdrawal. But what our neonatologist figured out is that you can dramatically reduce the amount of medications the babies get, but you can’t leave them in a little plastic isolette. You can decrease the medications, but you have to snuggle them. One of our service activities that students can sign up for is to get trained in the NICU, go into the NICU and snuggle the babies, which I’m just about to sign up for myself, because it sounds amazing to me. I’ll do it.
There are a whole bunch of different projects they do. And because they’re student run, students can come in and start a new group. Sometimes, over time, the need for one will fade.
A lot of people ask, do you have a student-run free clinic that students can work in? And the answer to that is no, because we have a free academic medical center. Massachusetts passed a law five years before the Affordable Care Act that said everybody has to have insurance, and we hugely expanded Medicaid. So 98% of the population of Massachusetts is insured. But you’ve still got to take care of the other two percent, and they come to either our hospital system or there’s Baystate in Springfield, which is a couple hours away. We don’t need a free clinic because we are a free clinic. It doesn’t matter if they qualify for insurance. It doesn’t matter if they don’t have any money. Either we will get them signed up if they qualify, or if they don’t, we just take care of them. That includes all their medications, all their testing, all their visits, all their whatever.
Given BU’s focus on serving the underserved, do you feel that the MCAT helps or hinders that mission? Any plans to go MCAT-optional? [13:07]
I don’t have plans to go MCAT optional because I believe that more information about candidates is better. Hopefully the most important question that we’re trying to answer with any application is, who are you? And what do you bring to the table? That’s really the big picture question that we’re trying to figure out about every single applicant. But more specifically, one question is, the most important one of all is, are you going to be able to manage the curriculum? How the MCAT helps us is it allows us to understand students’ performance, particularly in institutions that we’re not as familiar with.
For example, you’re in California, right? I had, before a couple of years ago, never heard of Cal State Fullerton, never heard of that place. I don’t know where it is. I don’t know what kind of education it offers. I don’t know if it has small 50-person classes or 500-person classes. I don’t know if anyone can go there. But what I do know is that a lot of people who are smart and ambitious will go to that college because that’s what’s available to them. It’s inexpensive. Maybe they can live at home; they may have home responsibilities, they need to take care of things at home, or they have to help the younger siblings, whatever. That doesn’t make them less smart or good doctors. It just means that’s what they did. If I have the MCAT, then I can help understand the answer to the question, are they going to be able to succeed in medical school? I don’t have any plans to get rid of that because I don’t particularly want to fall into the trap of relying on your school’s fanciness.
The other thing that’s part of our social justice mission is to recruit as diverse of a class as possible. The important thing with the MCAT is really how you use it. The most important thing is not to have strict cut-offs. Because if you cut people off, then you’re definitely going to cut some people out. A test is not everything. That’s why we don’t have any cut-offs. We try to, as I said, understand everybody in context. If you use the MCAT as evidence of somebody’s academic ability or predictive ability in terms of success in medical school, that’s what it’s intended for. If you’re using it as a sign of medical school quality, or quality of the student body, or rankings factors, there’s a problem.
Yes, there is a huge problem with that. The real problem is that people can just fudge it. Most medical schools have way more applicants than they can accept. If you’re trying to game the rankings system, then fine, just take the people with the highest MCAT scores and ignore the rest. But is that really what is going to make good doctors? No.
Do you have any advice for premeds about to take the MCAT? [16:06]
My overall advice would be to believe what the AAMC is telling people. It’s pretty easy to think that they’re trying to make it as hard as they can and they’re trying to weed people out. The AAMC is not; they’re trying to make a fair and valid test. They really, really do want to make it so that people have equal access. When they give you an outline for the test, for example, and say, “Here’s what’s on it,” that really is what’s on it. Some of the best resources are to be found on their website.
In general, what people need to do is they need to plan about three to six months in advance of studying. People do better if they study consistently over three to six months. They do better than if they try to say, okay, I’m just going to take the month of July and study the whole thing. It doesn’t work as well to do that. When I say three to six months for most people, it should be about like a part-time job. People are usually spending between 10 and 20 hours a week on it. It’s a lot of work. It’s like a class. The best way to do it is take a practice test, identify your strengths and weaknesses, and study up on the weaknesses. It is more fun to study your strengths, but it will not help you that much. That’s the pattern that works out best: lots and lots of quizzing yourself. Testing yourself is what’s really good. Your ability to do well on that test, it shows mastery of the material, and it also shows your ability to set a big educational goal. Doing that consistent work like that, that’s what we’re looking for.
The BUSM secondary application is a thorough secondary application with three to six essays. What do you learn from the secondary that you don’t get from the primary? [17:46]
We ask specific questions on the secondary. We give everyone a secondary application. We don’t do an initial screening. The reason is because there’s information on that secondary that helps us understand who you are and what you bring to the table as an applicant. For example, several of our questions are not required. We have one question that basically says, tell us whatever you want about your educational history. If there’s something that didn’t come up in the rest of the application, use this space to tell us. Not everybody answers it; there are lots of people who’ve had a relatively typical pathway, and we get it. But on the other hand, people often use that space to tell us things that maybe they didn’t want to spend their whole personal statement talking about. Perhaps somebody had a difficult semester and it was because their parent became ill, and they had to go and take care of them. Or they themselves are struggling with depression and they needed to take some time to address it.
Some people say, “I didn’t get a chance to explain this but my parents were in the Foreign Service, so I’ve actually lived in six different countries. This really informs my view of medicine because I have an understanding of the different way people view things.” People tell us all kinds of different things. One recent really memorable applicant talked about his journey from community college to an Ivy League school to finish out his education. We asked those questions because we, again, are really trying to be able to put all of the data about you into context.
Then this year, we added another question which specifically relates to our mission. This is a question that we actually added at the suggestion of our students. Our students this summer said, “We really, really need to work on increasing the diversity of our incoming classes. We all say we’ve got the social justice mission, but we need to ask applicants about it directly.” We did; we added a question to our secondary that basically said, “This is what the hospital does. Why do you think you’ll be good at it? Why do you think you belong in this social justice community?” And we want to know that. I will tell you that I was actually a little bit skeptical because I thought, “Ah, applicants are just going to tell us what they think we want to hear. They’re going to read the website, and they’re going to figure it out.” But it turns out that there’s a big difference between somebody who has read the website and says, “Yes, that’s exactly what I believe too,” versus somebody who’s actually been living their lives like that the whole time. And you see that when you look at people’s experiences. It has to do with the way they write about it too. If they say, “Oh, this would be such a good experience for me to learn,” that’s a little bit different than, “I would so value the opportunity to give back to this community,” or, “My goal is to serve. The reason I want to be a doctor is because I grew up without these resources, or nobody spoke my language, and so I want to go back to my own community, and I think I can get well trained to do it.”
How about the CASPer? What does that add to BUSM’s evaluation process? What does it add to your insight into an applicant? [21:07]
This is the first year that we’re actually using it in admissions decision making. We are in the process of analyzing how effectively CASPer helps us do our job. I don’t have hard data to share yet. The goal of CASPer is that it gives us information that otherwise is very difficult to get on the application but that almost everyone thinks is really important to be a good doctor. Most people believe that you need to have truly, truly exceptional communication skills, not just outstanding intelligence, but you also need to have outstanding communication skills. Most people believe that you need to have incredible empathy and that you need to be an excellent team player. But those things, it’s so hard to see them from the application. We look at the experiences to see if people have been inclined to work in teams before, but it’s hard to know if it’s really true or if it was just an accident that they were with a group of people.
It’s hard to pull that out of the rest of the application, and that’s what CASPer seeks to do. We hope that it is helping us get more information about each candidate. And frankly, I think that’s actually the stuff that’s really important. As I said, we have academic information with the GPA and the MCAT. I feel like we’ve got that covered. We know about your academic abilities.
Sometimes people’s grades dip because of depression or a mental health issue, but I know many applicants are reluctant to attribute a dip in grades to a mental health issue. How do you react to that? [22:40]
I agree that that is a difficult issue, because what you want is to put your best foot forward. And I think most people don’t think of that as being part of their best foot forward. I really do understand that it is difficult. And to be completely frank, I’ve seen people write things on applications that I think were a little bit too much. I think the key thing is to think about your audience and think about, again, what is the thing that they’re trying to assess? They’re trying to make sure that you are going to do well in medical school. Somebody who has wrestled with some mental health problems, grown a lot from it, developed an enormous amount of empathy, and there’s evidence that it’s really in the rearview mirror and it’s not to be a problem, then great, we’re good. That’s fine. People that seem to be in the midst of an ongoing struggle, I think I honestly would advise them to wait a little bit longer. Medical school is hard. We really are trying to support our students as much as we can. We believe in wellness. But the fact of the matter is, this is not a job for people that are trying to clock in and out at 9:00 and 5:00. It’s hard. You really want to be in a good place and feel like, “I am ready to jump right in there and pour my heart and soul into this thing.”
What is the interview day at BUSM like in the time of COVID? Is it a day, an experience, or an interview? [24:14]
First of all, we set up a special web page that’s part of our application portal that has a whole bunch of specific resources for students who are interviewing, which includes things like contact information for our current students who are admissions ambassadors. There’s this living FAQ document where interviewees can go in and put in a question, and then one of our students will answer it. It’s entirely done without my supervision. I asked the students to do it, but I don’t read it. You don’t have to worry about people trying to feed you the institutional line or whatever. There’s some things on there that are really just for interviewees.
Then, in addition, what we have in terms of the live stuff are three required things. You have one required faculty interview, you have one overview info session that I do, which is live, virtual, but it’s all real time and recorded. And then you also have a session with students. All of these are interactive. The session with me is interactive also, with lots of Q&A. With students, they start off with some introductory basic stuff, and then they go into breakout rooms, so then applicants have a chance to talk in just a small little group of students.
Those activities are all required, but we didn’t make people schedule it all in one day. That was a decision that I made when we were trying to plan out the season. And it mostly was because in the late summer, I was feeling just about maxed out on the amount of Zoom that I was doing. When I end up spending three hours or four hours in a row on Zoom, I just find them to be really tiring. I had a headache at the end. I didn’t think that would be appealing to applicants, so I thought, nope, let’s not do that. Let’s make these three things required, and we’re going to tell applicants to try and do them within a week of each other, and we’ll see if it works. The risk is the students won’t really remember that much, that all the stuff about BU will be a little diffuse, and that they won’t be able to remember it as well. But that was the experiment of this year.
Let’s say we get beyond COVID, and we can start traveling again. Will you return to in-person interviews? [26:37]
That is to be determined. I’m not trying to hedge; I really don’t know the answer. I am a massive extrovert, and I really like meeting people in-person, so I would vastly prefer to go back to our interview days, even though they’re hard to schedule and very demanding. I would prefer that. However, it is really expensive for applicants, especially if people are flying across the country and they’ve got to stay in a hotel. I think the evaluative part, which is the interview, that part actually goes pretty well over Zoom. I don’t know that much is lost. I think what’s lost in having a virtual day is getting to hang out at the school and just see what people act like and see how people seem to be with each other, and overhear little snippets of conversation and look at how everyone looks. I think that is the stuff that we lose.
The question is, is there a way to do that in another way that’s more efficient? This could end up being totally wrong, but it could be good if we have our interview days and schedule the interview requirements similar to the way we do now. But then what we might do is something like have a series of visit days for accepted students. It won’t be just one big open house like in the past. We’ve had this giant open house and a big party and we have workshops, and we have a reception at the end with a band, which is awesome, by the way. We have a BMC band, which is really excellent. But instead of that, what we might do is have a series of 8:00 or 10:00, Mondays or Fridays, when people are invited to come to campus, and then they can spend the day with us, get a tour, have lunch with students, chit chat with faculty, maybe sit down in the class. We arrange some things like that to allow them to make a decision.
I am really hoping that the AAMC surveys both schools and applicants to find out what they would like, because to some extent I want schools to play fair, and I want to be fair to applicants. I want it to be fair with schools too. We need to be aware of what everyone else is doing, and we really need to know what applicants think.
Do applicants miss the in-person experience? [29:10]
I think it’s both. We also need to be particularly attentive to some of the people we most care about recruiting, which is not necessarily people that have lots of money. When I was an applicant, I was living on my own, supporting myself, and I did not have a ton of family money or anything like that. I borrowed all the money for all of my school, but I still would have spent the money to travel to a school to go there. But I’m an extraordinary extrovert. I know I do much better in person, making an impression. So for me, it would have been worth it. But I don’t know that that’s the same for everybody, and I don’t want to disadvantage some people who are like, “I just can’t take time off from my two jobs and my family responsibilities.”
It’s something that everybody’s going to be grappling with in multiple fields. I actually prefer to see people in person. So I’m only seeing people in person right now. But I think for many things, telemedicine is perfectly adequate and really much more convenient for patients.
In 2019/20, BUSM received a total of 9,151 applications, yet it has 160 students who matriculated to its MD programs. Your site and this interview have both emphasized that every application is reviewed holistically. How do you winnow it down from 9,151 to 160? [30:28]
A human reads every single application. We have a team of people that review them. We have a set of criteria that we look at for every application. For every single application, how strong are the academics? How is the CASPer score? How focused is this person on service? There are a bunch of different criteria that we look at. We have a structured way that we review every application. we can’t do the whole pool at once and then do the invitations, so we do a chunk and then say, “Alright, of that 50, I’m going to pick the top 20%.” You take the top 20% and say, “Okay, those are the people we’re going to interview.”
Are you looking for anything differently today than you looked for two or five years ago when you first started at BU? Or maybe when you were at Harvard? [31:44]
Not because of the impact of the pandemic. The things we looked at at Harvard were a little different from the things we look at at BU, just because of the different missions of the schools. I actually really think that the things we’re looking at and the criteria are the same. I would say that this year, we’re more focused on mission fit, a little bit. We’ve always been pretty focused on mission fit, but I think now we’re emphasizing that more, really wanting to get people who share our goal of solving the biggest problems for the neediest people.
How do you view letters of intent or correspondence from waitlist applicants, or letters of intent? [32:30]
This year, as you no doubt know, everything was slowed down by a couple of weeks. There’s probably a lot of people still hanging out there wondering what the heck is going on, and it really is just because it’s taken us longer. We had a 27% increase in applications. Before the interview, they don’t make any difference at all for us. I don’t know what other schools are doing. We just review the application. For other letters of intent or updates, the later in the process you get, the more they matter. I used to joke with people: When you’re in person, I do want to know if you really are interested in BU. But if you go outside and, while you’re waiting for your Uber, you’re like, “Dear Dr. Goodell, BUSM is my favorite,” I’m going to be like, “You’re full of baloney, you haven’t even seen all the places yet. I don’t believe you.”
On the other hand, if people are more towards the end of the process, they have seen all their schools, and they feel really strongly about a school, then that becomes a little bit more important. But truly, the only time that makes a difference is if we’re your very first choice. Even then, the time when it makes the most difference of all is if you find yourself on the waitlist. If you’re on the waitlist, and you’re thinking, “Oh, I really wanted to go there. That is my number one school,” then sometimes that makes a difference.
You’re open to waitlist letters? You don’t throw them in the trash or anything like that? [34:06]
No, we don’t. I read them all, actually. Really every year, there are people who write and say, “This is my absolute choice.” The more honest and clear people can be, the better it is. People will say, “I have another plan. I have been accepted to another school. But if you let me in, I’m coming.” Especially if you’re like, “I am accepted somewhere else and will matriculate there on August 1st, but if you let me in first, I’m coming down.” Then I’m like, “Okay, I believe you.”
What advice would you give to med school applicants thinking ahead and planning to apply either in 2021 or 2022? [34:56]
The biggest question that applicants have is, “How can I get in?” And part of that is, “How can I make myself stand out?” And then a subsidiary of that question is, “Is it better for me to do this or this activity?” or, “How should I spend my time?” The most important thing is that you do what you are excited about, not what you think is going to look good. There’s a whole set of applications where people have met all of the criteria. When we read those applications, what we often write in our notes is, “This application has a checkbox feel,” which means, “They told me I have to do some community service.” That doesn’t play all that well.
But I also get it. I feel bad saying that because I understand, poor applicants, they’re just trying to follow the rules. I get it. It’s not that it’s a bad thing to do. But I think what is the most important is that you do the thing that is really exciting to you. Because most likely, there’s going to be some school that thinks that is amazing. Apply and go to one of those schools that thinks what you did is totally amazing.
As I said, we are not the only social justice medical school in the United States. We’re looking for people that we think are going to genuinely share our passion and enthusiasm. I think that’s really important. That can be for whatever the thing is. If your thing is serving the underserved, great. But if your thing is the business of medicine, so you worked for Deloitte for a couple of years, that’s good. Do that. I’m not sure that BU would be the best place for you. Do the thing that you’re excited about. Some school is going to like it, probably. That’s my advice. Do what you love.
One little subtlety: It’s okay to test something out and then decide it’s not really you. That’s fine. Then, if somebody asks you about it, you can say, “Oh, that wasn’t really me.” That actually happens. We see it happen with research sometimes. People will try to do some research, and their motivations were good, but then they found this bench work stuff is just not really where their heart is. There are multiple different ways to contribute. There are multiple different ways to do community service.
What would you have liked me to ask you? [40:16]
I think it’s really important that people know that there is not one right path. The reason that we do this holistic review stuff, the reason that we have a human read every application, is because there are an infinite number of different pathways to have a successful career in medicine. We just don’t think it’s a one-size-fits-all enterprise. I want people to know that it’s okay to make mistakes, that it’s okay to change your mind about stuff.
You’re right, I finished my residency in family medicine, but I matched into general surgery and did that for three years and then switched. I totally changed. I don’t say I made a mistake. I regret it 0%; it just made me a better doctor. But on the other hand, that happened because the reasons I picked surgery were just wrong. “My mom will be extra proud if I’m a surgeon.” I was trying to make a decision in a way that I don’t make decisions. I was trying to check all the pros and not have any cons. That’s just not the way I actually do things. I want people to know that you can take all these different pathways and have it still be okay. There are really very few non-overcomeable mistakes.
That, and maintain academic integrity. Don’t cheat. That’s one of the hardest things to overcome that I can think of.
Where can listeners learn more about Boston University School of Medicine? [42:00]
Go to bumc.bu.edu/admissions. Or, if you Google BUSM admissions, that’s what comes up, and you’ve got all the information.