It is currently 27 May 2017, 01:55
My Tests

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 07 Jun 2014
Posts: 1680
GRE 1: 323 Q167 V156
WE: Business Development (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 29

Kudos [?]: 508 [0], given: 112

Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role [#permalink] New post 03 Apr 2016, 05:39
Expert's post
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  5% (low)

Question Stats:

0% (00:00) correct 0% (00:00) wrong based on 0 sessions
Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role in the consolidation of declarative memory (i.e., memory involving factual information). These researchers note that people with impairments in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep continue to lead normal lives, and they argue that if sleep were crucial for memory, then these individuals would have apparent memory deficits. Yet the same researchers acknowledge that the
cognitive capacities of these individuals have never been systematically examined, nor have they been the subject of studies of tasks on which performance reportedly depends on sleep. Even if such studies were done, they could only clarify our understanding of the role of REM sleep, not sleep in general.
These researchers also claim that improvements of memory overnight can be explained by the mere passage of time, rather than attributed to sleep. But recent studies of memory performance after sleep — including one demonstrating that sleep stabilizes declarative memories from future interference caused by mental activity during wakefulness — make this claim unsustainable. Certainly there are memory consolidation processes that occur across periods of wakefulness, some of which neither depend on nor are enhanced by sleep. But when sleep is compared with wakefulness, and performance is better after sleep, then some benefit of sleep for memory must be acknowledged.


11. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A present the evidence that supports a particular claim regarding REM sleep and memory
B describe how various factors contribute to the effect of sleep on memory
C argue against a particular position regarding sleep’s role in memory
D summarize the most prevalent theory regarding sleep and memory
E defend the importance of the consolidation of declarative memory

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


12. According to the author of the passage, which of the following generalizations about memory and sleep is true?
A There are some memory-consolidation processes that have nothing to do with sleep.
B Sleep is more important to the consolidation of declarative memory than to the consolidation of other types of memory.
C REM sleep is more important to memory consolidation than is non-REM sleep.
D There are significant variations in the amount of sleep that people require for the successful consolidation of memory.
E It is likely that memory is more thoroughly consolidated during wakefulness than during sleep.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


13. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 14–16 (“Certainly . . . sleep”)?

A It provides the reasoning behind a claim about the role of sleep in memory consolidation.
B It explains why a previous claim about sleep and memory is unsustainable.
C It demonstrates why wakefulness is central to the process of declarative memory consolidation.
D It emphasizes the limited role sleep plays in the process of declarative memory consolidation.
E It concedes that the consolidation of declarative memory does not depend entirely on one factor.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


14. The importance of the study mentioned in lines 12–14 is that it

A reveals the mechanism by which declarative memory is stabilized during sleep
B identifies a specific function that sleep plays in the memory-consolidation process
C demonstrates that some kinds of mental activity can interfere with memory consolidation
D suggests that sleep and wakefulness are both important to memory consolidation
E explains how the passage of time contributes to memory consolidation

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B



Practice Test Questions
Question: 11-14
Page: 440-441

_________________

Sandy
If you found this post useful, please let me know by pressing the Kudos Button

Try our free Online GRE Test

SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 07 Jun 2014
Posts: 1680
GRE 1: 323 Q167 V156
WE: Business Development (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 29

Kudos [?]: 508 [0], given: 112

Re: Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role [#permalink] New post 03 Apr 2016, 05:46
Expert's post
Summary of the passage:

The passage presents and then rebuts two arguments made by researchers who question the contribution of sleep to the consolidation of declarative memory (memory involving factual information). The first argument is that people with impairments to REM sleep continue to lead normal lives. In response, the passage says that these researchers themselves acknowledge the absence of systematic study of such individuals’ cognitive abilities, study that would be necessary in order to fully support the researchers’ claim. The passage also points out that the researchers’ claim applies only to REM sleep rather than to sleep in general. The second claim is that improvements of memory that occur overnight might be explained merely by the passage of time.

In response, the passage cites research findings that demonstrate the role of sleep in stabilizing declarative memory.

Explaination

11. As described above, the purpose of the passage as a whole is to argue against the view held by some researchers that sleep plays no role in the consolidation of declarative memory. Therefore, Choice C is correct. Choice A is incorrect: the passage does mention REM sleep twice in the first paragraph, but its primary purpose is not to examine REM sleep in particular, and it does not present evidence related to REM sleep. Choice B is incorrect: the passage is concerned with the effect of sleep on memory, but not with any factors that contribute to that effect. Choice D is incorrect: the passage does not summarize a theory. Instead, it cites a claim and then assesses and rejects that claim. Choice E is incorrect: although the passage is about the consolidation of declarative memory, it does nothing to defend its importance.

12. The passage states that “there are memory-consolidation processes that occur across periods of wakefulness.” Accordingly, Choice A is correct. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect: the passage does not discuss types of memory other than consolidative memory, the relative importance to consolidative memory of REM and non-REM sleep, or differences among individuals in the amount of sleep they require. Choice E is also incorrect: the passage suggests that the truth is the opposite of what this answer choice states. The last sentence of the passage indicates that performance on memory tasks has been found to be better after sleep than after periods of wakefulness.

13. The cited sentence begins with the word “Certainly,” a clue that the sentence will concede that the researchers are not entirely wrong: in this instance, they are not wrong about memory consolidation occurring during periods of wakefulness. Thus, Choice E is correct. Choice A is incorrect: the sentence deals with memory consolidation during wakefulness, not with the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Choice B is incorrect: the sentence does follow an assertion that the researchers’ claim is unsustainable, but it does not explain why it is unsustainable. Choice C is incorrect: the sentence does not demonstrate anything. It acknowledges that memory consolidation occurs during wakeful periods but does not identify wakefulness as central to the process. Choice D is incorrect: while the sentence does acknowledge that some memory-consolidation processes are not dependent on sleep, it does not go so far as to claim that sleep plays a limited role in memory consolidation generally.

14. The question asks what “the importance of the study mentioned in lines 12–14” is. The study is described as having shown that sleep stabilizes declarative memory from future interference caused by mental activity during wakefulness. This protection of memory from interference is the “specific function” played by sleep mentioned in Choice B. Therefore, Choice B is correct. Choice A is incorrect: there is no description of any mechanism, or specific process, by which declarative memory is stabilized.

Although Choices C, D, and E each involve issues connected with the study, those connections are all tangential.
_________________

Sandy
If you found this post useful, please let me know by pressing the Kudos Button

Try our free Online GRE Test

Re: Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role   [#permalink] 03 Apr 2016, 05:46
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Some researchers contend that sleep plays no role

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GRE Prep Club Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GRE Prep Club Rules| Contact

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GRE® test is a registered trademark of the Educational Testing Service®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by ETS®.