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In 1798, economist Thomas Robert Malthus stated in his “Ess

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In 1798, economist Thomas Robert Malthus stated in his “Ess [#permalink] New post 29 May 2017, 06:35
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In 1798, economist Thomas Robert Malthus stated in his “Essay on the Principle of Population” that “population increases in a geometric ratio, while the means of subsistence increases in an arithmetic ratio.” However, Malthus’s dire prediction of a precipitous decline in the world’s population has not come to pass. The miscalculations in what has come to be known as the Malthus Doctrine are partly due to Malthus’s inability to foresee the innovations that allowed vast increases in worldwide wheat production.

In the late nineteenth century, the invention of the tractor staved off a Malthusian disaster. While the first tractors were not particularly powerful, the replacement of animals by machinery meant that land that had been devoted to hay and oats could now be reclaimed for growth of crops for human
consumption.Nevertheless, the Malthusian limit might still have been reached if crop yield had not been increased.

A natural way to increase crop yield is to supply the soil with additional nitrogen. In 1909, chemist Fritz Haber succeeded in combining nitrogen and hydrogen to make ammonia, the white powder version of which, when added to the soil, improves wheat production. Haber nitrogen, however, was not widely used until later in the twentieth century, largely due to farmers’ resistance to spreading an unnatural substance on their crops. Haber’s invention had a further drawback: If applied in incorrect quantities, the wheat crop would grow taller and thicker, eventually toppling over and rotting.

Interestingly, in the late twentieth century the discovery of genetic engineering, which provides a means of increasing rice and maize production, met with equal resistance, this time from the environmental movement. Even without direct genetic engineering, it is likely that science will discover new methods to
improve agricultural production.
According to the passage, which of the following is true about Haber nitrogen?

A) Haber nitrogen is more effective at increasing the yield of wheat crops than that of maize or oat crops.
B) Undesired effects can result from the application of surplus quantities of Haber nitrogen.
C) Haber nitrogen was the first non-naturally occurring substance to be applied to crops as fertilizer.
D) Haber nitrogen may not be effective if applied at an improper time in wheat’s growth cycle.
E) Farmers were quick to adopt Haber nitrogen because it made their

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


The passage implies all of the following EXCEPT

A) world food production has kept pace with world population growth
B) technological innovation is one factor that allowed for an increase in crop production
C) farmers are not the only group that has opposed artificial efforts to increase crop yield.
D) the Malthusian limit might well have been reached if new methods to increase crop production had not been found
E) a Malthusian disaster would have been ensured if it were not for the invention of genetic engineering

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


Which of the following, if true, would best represent
Malthus’ contention in the first paragraph?

A) By 2040 the world’s population increases marginally, and food production keeps pace with demand.
B) By 2040 the world’s population decreases marginally, and food production outstrips demand.
C) By 2040 the world’s population remains unchanged, and food production declines slightly.
D) By 2040 the world’s population has significantly increased, and food production has increased slightly.
E) By 2040 the world’s population has significantly decreased, and food production has decreased slightly.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


Which of the following most nearly means the word precipitous, as used in context?

A) anticipated
B) deliberate
C) gradual
D) risky
E) sharp

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


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Re: In 1798, economist Thomas Robert Malthus stated in his “Ess [#permalink] New post 06 Jun 2017, 04:57
please explain all the options of 2nd question...
Re: In 1798, economist Thomas Robert Malthus stated in his “Ess   [#permalink] 06 Jun 2017, 04:57
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In 1798, economist Thomas Robert Malthus stated in his “Ess

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